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1 Introduction We introduce certain conventions and notations that will be used throughout this paper. For any graph G = (V, E) and any subset C ⊆ E of edges, let G\C denote the graph G = (V, E − C). (u → v) G denotes that there is a path from the vertex u to the vertex v in the graph G; ¬(u → v) G denotes that there is no such path. Let α(G, C) = {(u,v) |(More)
We present a fast and efficient combinatorial algorithm to simultaneously identify the candidate locations as well as the sizes of the buffers driving a clock mesh. Due to the high redundancy, a mesh architecture offers high tolerance towards variation in the clock skew. However, such a redundancy comes at the expense of mesh wire length and power(More)
To participate as co-receptor in growth factor signaling, heparan sulfate must have specific structural features. Recent studies show that when the levels of 6-O-sulfation of heparan sulfate are diminished by the activity of extracellular heparan sulfate 6-O-endosulfatases (Sulfs), fibroblast growth factor 2-, heparin binding epidermal growth factor-, and(More)
Clock skew is becoming increasingly difficult to control due to variations. Link based non-tree clock distribution is a cost-effective technique for reducing clock skew variations. However, previous works based on this technique were limited to unbuffered clock networks and neglected spatial correlations in the experimental validation. In this work, we(More)
BACKGROUND There is an urgent need to determine whether oversulfated chondroitin sulfate (OSCS), a compound contaminating heparin supplies worldwide, is the cause of the severe anaphylactoid reactions that have occurred after intravenous heparin administration in the United States and Germany. METHODS Heparin procured from the Food and Drug(More)
In comparison with genomics and proteomics, the advancement of glycomics has faced unique challenges in the pursuit of developing analytical and biochemical tools and biological readouts to investigate glycan structure-function relationships. Glycans are more diverse in terms of chemical structure and information density than are DNA and proteins. This(More)
Heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) play a key role in shaping the tumor microenvironment by presenting growth factors, cytokines, and other soluble factors that are critical for host cell recruitment and activation, as well as promoting tumor progression, metastasis, and survival. M402 is a rationally engineered, non-cytotoxic heparan sulfate (HS)(More)
To the Editor Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells are widely used for the manufacture of biotherapeutics, in part because of their ability to produce proteins with desirable properties, including 'human-like' glycosylation profiles. For biotherapeutics production, control of glycosylation is critical because it has a profound effect on protein function,(More)
The heparan sulfate proteoglycan syndecan-1 is expressed by myeloma cells and shed into the myeloma microenvironment. High levels of shed syndecan-1 in myeloma patient sera correlate with poor prognosis and studies in animal models indicate that shed syndecan-1 is a potent stimulator of myeloma tumor growth and metastasis. Overexpression of extracellular(More)
Power/ground noise is a major source of VLSI circuit timing variations. This work aims to reduce clock network induced power noise by assigning different signal polarities (opposite switchings) to clock buffers in an existing buffered clock tree. Three assignment algorithms are proposed: (1) partitioning, (2) 2-coloring on minimum spanning tree and (3)(More)