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Heparinase II depolymerizes heparin and heparan sulfate glycosaminoglycans, yielding unsaturated oligosaccharide products through an elimination degradation mechanism. This enzyme cleaves the oligosaccharide chain on the nonreducing end of either glucuronic or iduronic acid, sharing this characteristic with a chondroitin ABC lyase. We have determined the(More)
BACKGROUND In January 2008, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention began a nationwide investigation of severe adverse reactions that were first detected in a single hemodialysis facility. Preliminary findings suggested that heparin was a possible cause of the reactions. METHODS Information on clinical manifestations and on exposure was collected(More)
Heparin has been used as a clinical anticoagulant for more than 50 years, making it one of the most effective pharmacological agents known. Much of heparin's activity can be traced to its ability to bind antithrombin III (AT-III). Low molecular weight heparin (LMWH), derived from heparin by its controlled breakdown, maintains much of the antithrombotic(More)
BACKGROUND There is an urgent need to determine whether oversulfated chondroitin sulfate (OSCS), a compound contaminating heparin supplies worldwide, is the cause of the severe anaphylactoid reactions that have occurred after intravenous heparin administration in the United States and Germany. METHODS Heparin procured from the Food and Drug(More)
Recently, certain lots of heparin have been associated with an acute, rapid onset of serious side effects indicative of an allergic-type reaction. To identify potential causes for this sudden rise in side effects, we examined lots of heparin that correlated with adverse events using orthogonal high-resolution analytical techniques. Through detailed(More)
The structural microheterogeneity of heparin and heparan sulfate is one of the major reasons for the multifunctionality exhibited by this class of molecules. In a physiological context, these molecules primarily exert their effects extracellularly by mediating key processes of cellular cross-talk and signaling leading to the modulation of a number of(More)
Heparin- and heparan sulfate-like glycosaminoglycans (HLGAGs) represent an important class of molecules that interact with and modulate the activity of growth factors, enzymes, and morphogens. Of the many biological functions for this class of molecules, one of its most important functions is its interaction with antithrombin III (AT-III). AT-III binding to(More)
1 Introduction We introduce certain conventions and notations that will be used throughout this paper. For any graph G = (V, E) and any subset C ⊆ E of edges, let G\C denote the graph G = (V, E − C). (u → v) G denotes that there is a path from the vertex u to the vertex v in the graph G; ¬(u → v) G denotes that there is no such path. Let α(G, C) = {(u,v) |(More)
Heparan sulfate glycosaminoglycans, present at the cell surface and in the extracellular matrix that surrounds cells, are important mediators of complex biological processes. Furthermore, it is now apparent that cells dynamically regulate the structure of their heparan sulfate "coat" to differentially regulate extracellular signals. In the present study,(More)