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The purpose of the present study was to establish a rat retinal ganglion cell line by transformation of rat retinal cells. For this investigation, retinal cells were isolated from postnatal day 1 (PN1) rats and transformed with the psi2 E1A virus. In order to isolate retinal ganglion cells (RGC), single cell clones were chosen at random from the transformed(More)
The role of endothelin-1 (ET-1) a potent vasoactive peptide, in glaucoma pathogenesis is receiving increasing attention, particularly in astroglial activation in optic nerve damage. Our laboratory has also shown that ET-1 treatment causes proliferation of cultured human optic nerve head astrocytes to possibly initiate astrogliosis. ET-1 is distributed in(More)
The aim of the study was to investigate the ocular hypotensive activity of a nitric oxide (NO)-donating latanoprost, BOL-303259-X, following topical administration. The effect of BOL-303259-X (also known as NCX 116 and PF-3187207) on intraocular pressure (IOP) was investigated in monkeys with laser-induced ocular hypertension, dogs with naturally-occurring(More)
Endothelin-1 (ET-1) lowers intraocular pressure (IOP) in animal models by regulating aqueous humour dynamics through both inflow and outflow mechanisms. Moreover, ET's concentration is elevated in glaucoma patients and in animal models of glaucoma. Glucocorticoid therapy often can lead to increase IOP in susceptible individuals including patients with(More)
Endothelin-1 (ET-1), a potent vasoconstrictor, lowers intraocular pressure in mammals, either by enhancing the outflow of aqueous humor (AH) via the trabecular meshwork and Schlemm's canal or by reducing AH formation at the ciliary epithelium. Aqueous humor production occurs by passive diffusion of water coupled with active transport of ions, mainly(More)
Endothelin-1 (ET-1) (1-100 nM) decreases the activity of Na,K-ATPase, a key enzyme responsible for aqueous humor formation, in transformed human non-pigmented ciliary epithelial (HNPE) cells. The present study sought to determine if ET-1 alters the expression of the catalytically active alpha subunit of Na,K-ATPase in HNPE cells and identify mechanisms(More)
It has become increasingly clear that astrocytes may play an important role in the genesis of glaucoma. Astrogliosis occurs in response to ocular stress or the presence of noxious stimuli. Agents that appear to stimulate reactive gliosis are becoming increasingly clear. One class of agents that is emerging is the endothelins (ETs; specifically, ET-1). In(More)
Endothelin is a vasoactive peptide that has been shown to play an important role in vascular homeostasis. Recently, endothelin and its receptors have been found in ocular tissues where it appears to have a regulatory function. Endothelin is found in both the aqueous and vitreous humors and its concentration is elevated in glaucoma patients and in animal(More)
PURPOSE To determine whether human optic nerve head astrocytes (hONAs) are target cells for the actions of endothelin (ET)-1, a potent vasoactive peptide, by causing astrocyte proliferation, as occurs in glaucomatous optic nerve heads. ET-1 levels are elevated in glaucomatous eyes, and administration of ET-1 to the retina causes glial activation and optic(More)
PURPOSE Endothelin (ET)-1 can produce nerve damage analogous to that in optic neuropathies such as glaucoma. The precise source of endothelin in the posterior segment of the eye remains unclear. The present study was conducted to determine whether the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), which helps maintain the outer blood-retinal barrier, is a local source(More)