Galina Gritsina

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Indoleamine 2, 3-dioxygenase 1 (IDO1), IDO2, and tryptophan 2, 3-dioxygenase (TDO) comprise a family of enzymes that catalyze the first- and rate-limiting step associated with the catabolic conversion of tryptophan (Trp) into kynurenine (Kyn). Through subsequent enzymatic and spontaneous reactions, Kyn is further converted into the energetic substrates,(More)
Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common primary malignant brain tumor in adults, with an average age of 64 years at the time of diagnosis. To study GBM, a number of mouse brain tumor models have been utilized. In these animal models, subjects tend to range from 6 to 12 weeks of age, which is analogous to that of a human teenager. Here, we examined the impact(More)
We hypothesized that peripheral tryptophan (Trp) and/or kynurenine (Kyn) levels would provide prognostic value for physicians planning to enroll glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) patients in immunotherapy. GBM is the most common form of malignant glioma in adults. Despite aggressive surgical resection, irradiation and chemotherapy, patients with GBM have a(More)
Purpose: Indoleamine 2,3 dioxygenase 1 (IDO1) mediates potent immunosuppression in multiple preclinical models of cancer. However, the basis for elevated IDO1 expression in human cancer, including the most common primary malignant brain tumor in adults, glioblastoma (GBM), is poorly understood. The major objective of this study is to address this gap in our(More)
Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common malignant brain tumor in adults with a median survival of 14.6months. A contributing factor to GBM aggressiveness is the intratumoral expression of the potently immunosuppressive enzyme, indoleamine 2,3 dioxygenase 1 (IDO1). The enzymatic activity of IDO1 is associated with the conversion of tryptophan into downstream(More)
The effective treatment of adult and pediatric malignant glioma is a significant clinical challenge. In adults, glioblastoma (GBM) accounts for the majority of malignant glioma diagnoses with a median survival of 14.6 mo. In children, malignant glioma accounts for 20% of primary CNS tumors with a median survival of less than 1 y. Here, we discuss vaccine(More)
The discovery that immunotherapy is a clinically-relevant approach for the treatment of malignant tumors is revolutionizing patient care. In adults diagnosed with glioblastoma (GBM), an aggressive and incurable primary brain tumor, autologous HSPPC-96 vaccination provides a significant increase in overall survival. However, all GBM patients eventually(More)
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