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A method for the discovery of the structure of conformational discontinuous epitopes of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) is described. The mAb is used to select specific phages from combinatorial phage-display peptide libraries that in turn are used as an epitope-defining database that is applied via a novel computer algorithm to analyze the crystalline(More)
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) entry into target cells involves sequential binding of the gp120 exterior envelope glycoprotein to CD4 and to specific chemokine receptors. Soluble CD4 (sCD4) is thought to mimic membrane-anchored CD4, and its binding alters the conformation of the HIV-1 envelope glycoproteins. Two cross-competing monoclonal(More)
Hydroxylamine-containing analogues of putrescine and cadaverine have been found effective in inhibiting the mouse liver ornithine decarboxylase, the best among synthesized were 1-aminooxy-3-aminopropane (I50 2.10(-8) M) and 1-aminooxy-4-aminobutane (I50 2.10(-7) M). The inhibitory effect of these substances on the mouse liver ornithine-transaminase and(More)
The binding of the surface envelope glycoprotein gp120 to its receptor, CD4, has been well characterized and is the primary basis for the cell tropism of HIV. In this study, the interaction between recombinant soluble CD4 and native membrane-associated CD4 with gp120 is probed by the use of mAbs. Complexation of gp120 with both forms of CD4 induces(More)
Analysis of the properties for individual hepatitis C virus (HCV) proteins makes it possible to establish their molecular structure and conformation, to localize antigenic and immunogenic determinants, to identify protective epitopes, and to solve applied problems (e.g., design of diagnostic tests, vaccines, and drugs). Linear and conformational epitopes of(More)
The entry of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) into cells is initiated by binding of the viral glycoprotein gp120-gp41 to its cellular receptor CD4. The gp120-CD4 complex formed at the cell surface undergoes conformational changes that may allow its association with an additional membrane component(s) and the eventual formation of the fusion(More)
Effective vaccines against the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) must cope with the genetic variation of the viral envelope (gp120) to combat or prevent acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Here we describe novel epitopes that are accentuated when gp120 complexes with its receptor (CD4). The presentation of these epitopes results through(More)
Phage display epitope library technology and a novel computer algorithm have been used for the localization of CD4 epitopes specific for monoclonal antibody (mAb) T6 and autoimmune antibodies found in an HIV infected patient. Both predicted epitope clusters have been shown to overlap and to be localized within the domain 4 of CD4. They included Cys303,(More)
To further our understanding of the nature of HIV-1 immunogenicity, we injected mice with the virus envelope protein gp120 in different configurations: free, complexed with its receptor CD4, and as an immunocomplex with a monoclonal antibody directed against the V3 loop of the protein. Analyses of the polyclonal sera, as well as of monoclonal antibodies(More)
Ligands for the NKG2D receptor are overexpressed on tumors, making them interesting immunotherapy targets. To assess the tumoricidal properties of T cells directed to attack NKG2D ligands, we engineered murine T cells with two distinct NKG2D-based chimeric antigen receptors (CARs): (i) a fusion between the NKG2D receptor and the CD3ζ chain and (ii) a(More)