Galen M. Pieper

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OBJECTIVE Previous studies suggest a role of superoxide anion radicals (.O2-) in impaired endothelium-dependent relaxation of diabetic blood vessels; however, the role of secondary reactive oxygen species remains unclear. In the present study, we investigated a role of various potential reactive oxygen species in diabetic endothelial dysfunction. METHODS(More)
Brief (15-minute) coronary occlusion and subsequent reperfusion lead to prolonged functional and metabolic abnormalities (stunned myocardium). Previous work suggests that one factor responsible for this phenomenon is oxygen-derived free radicals. The formation of the highly reactive hydroxyl radical requires the presence of metal ions, most importantly(More)
Nitric oxide (NO) donors such as sodium nitroprusside (SNP, 0.01-1 micrograms) or 3-morpholino-sydnonimine (SIN-1, 0.1-10 micrograms) administered intracerebroventricularly (i.c.v) produced a dose-dependent potentiation of beta-endorphin-induced antinociception assessed by the tail-flick test in ICR mice. The same i.c.v. treatment with SNP or SIN-1 did not(More)
Cellular proliferation determines the events leading to the initiation and development of inflammation, immune activation, cancer, atherogenesis, and other disorders associated with aberrant cell proliferation. Cyclin inhibitor p21 plays a unique role in limiting cell cycle progression. However, its effectiveness can only be demonstrated with direct in(More)
We examined the efficacy and mechanism of action of N(6)-(1-iminoethyl)-L-lysine (L-NIL), a highly selective inhibitor of inducible nitric oxide (NO) synthase (iNOS), on acute cardiac transplant rejection. L-NIL produced a concentration-dependent attenuation of plasma NO by-products and a decrease in nitrosylation of heme protein without altering protein(More)
Inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) is a prominent component of the complex array of mediators in acute graft rejection. While NO production is determined by iNOS expression, BH4 (tetrahydrobiopterin), a cofactor of iNOS synthesized by GTP cyclohydrolase I, has been considered critical in sustaining NO production. In the present study, we examined(More)
GTP cyclohydrolase I (GTPCH) is the rate-limiting enzyme for tetrahydrobiopterin (BH(4)) synthesis. Decreases in GTPCH activity and expression have been shown in late stages of acute cardiac rejection, suggesting a deficit in BH(4). We hypothesized that increasing intracellular levels of BH(4) by cardiac myocyte-targeted overexpression of GTPCH would(More)
Tetrahydrobiopterin (BH(4)), a cofactor of inducible nitric-oxide synthase (iNOS), is an important post-translational regulator of NO bioactivity. We examined whether treatment of cardiac allograft recipients with sepiapterin [S-(-)-2-amino-7,8-dihydro-6-(2-hydroxy-1-oxopropyl)-4-(1H)-pteridinone], a precursor of BH(4), inhibited acute rejection and(More)
Modification of the thromboxane: prostacyclin ratio alters the severity of reperfusion arrhythmias and postischemic damage in long-term, irreversibly injured myocardium. In this study, the effects of the thromboxane synthetase inhibitor dazmegrel and the thromboxane receptor antagonist BM 13.505 on myocardial postischemic functional recovery and(More)