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Annual aplocheiloid killifish embryos possess a rare ability among vertebrates to enter stages of developmental arrest (diapause) when subjected to adverse environmental conditions. Previous morphological analyses have presented disparate hypotheses regarding the evolution of the intriguing life history associated with this phenomenon. We present a novel(More)
We examined the phylogenetic relationships of 16 northern species of the aplocheiloid genus Rivulus inhabiting the Caribbean, Central America, and South America. A total of 714 base pairs per taxon were sequenced from two segments of the mitochondrial genome, 12S rRNA and cytochrome b. Both parsimony and neighbor-joining analyses suggest an ancient(More)
Fixed-charge empirical force fields have been developed and widely used over the past three decades for all-atom molecular simulations. Most simulation programs providing these methods enable only one set of force field parameters to be used for the entire system. Whereas this is generally suitable for single-phase systems, the molecular environment at the(More)
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