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Human embryonic stem (ES) cells are pluripotent cells that may be used in transplantation medicine. These cells can be induced to differentiate into cells from the three embryonic germ layers both in vivo and in vitro. To determine whether human ES cells might be rejected after transplantation, we examined cell surface expression of the MHC proteins in(More)
In the maternal decidua, natural killer (NK) cells, characterized by lack of CD16, are found in direct contact with the fetal extravillous trophoblasts (EVTs). It is yet unknown which factors contribute to the specific homing of this unique NK subset to the decidua. In this study we analyze the chemokine receptor repertoire on various NK populations derived(More)
PURPOSE Adoptive cell therapy with autologous tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) has shown promising results in metastatic melanoma patients. Although objective response rates of over 50% have been reported, disadvantages of this approach are the labor-intensive TIL production and a very high drop-out rate of enrolled patients, limiting its widespread(More)
Human cytomegalovirus, a chief pathogen in immunocompromised people, can persist in a healthy immunocompetent host throughout life without being eliminated by the immune system. Here we show that pp65, the main tegument protein of human cytomegalovirus, inhibited natural killer cell cytotoxicity by an interaction with the activating receptor NKp30. This(More)
Some solid tumors have reduced posttranscriptional RNA editing by adenosine deaminase acting on RNA (ADAR) enzymes, but the functional significance of this alteration has been unclear. Here, we found the primary RNA-editing enzyme ADAR1 is frequently reduced in metastatic melanomas. In situ analysis of melanoma samples using progression tissue microarrays(More)
NK cells are cytotoxic to virus-infected and tumor cells that have lost surface expression of class I MHC proteins. Target cell expression of class I MHC proteins inhibits NK cytotoxicity through binding to inhibitory NK receptors. In contrast, a similar family of activating NK receptors, characterized by the presence of a charged residue in their(More)
It was previously shown that CEACAM1 on melanoma cells strongly predicts poor outcome. Here, we show a statistically significant increase of serum CEACAM1 in 64 active melanoma patients, as compared to 48 patients with no evidence of disease and 37 healthy donors. Among active patients, higher serum CEACAM1 correlated with LDH values and with decreased(More)
The nonclassical class I MHC molecule HLA-G is selectively expressed on extravillous cytotrophoblast cells at the maternal-fetal interface during pregnancy. HLA-G can inhibit the killing mediated by NK cells via interaction with the inhibitory NK cell receptor, leukocyte Ig-like receptor-1 (LIR-1). Comparison of the sequence of the HLA-G molecule to other(More)
A role for NK cells in the regulation of autoimmunity has been demonstrated. Since there is a strong association between Ankylosing Spondylitis (AS) and HLA-B27, which is specifically recognized by the NK-inhibitory receptor KIR3DL1, this study evaluated the potential involvement of NK cells in AS. We studied 19 AS patients and 22 healthy volunteer donors(More)
NK cells are able to kill virus-infected and tumor cells via a panel of lysis receptors. Cells expressing class I MHC proteins are protected from lysis primarily due to the interactions of several families of NK receptors with both classical and nonclassical class I MHC proteins. In this study we show that a class I MHC-deficient melanoma cell line(More)