Learn More
The parasitic wasp Ampulex compressa stings a cockroach Periplaneta americana in the neck, toward the head ganglia (the brain and subesophageal gangli-on). In the present study, our aim was to identify the head ganglion that is the target of the venom and the mechanisms by which the venom blocks the thoracic portion of the escape neuronal circuitry. Because(More)
BACKGROUND Ablation of TRPV1-expressing nociceptive fibers with the potent capsaicin analog resiniferatoxin (RTX) results in long lasting pain relief. RTX is particularly adaptable to focal application, and the induced chemical axonopathy leads to analgesia with a duration that is influenced by dose, route of administration, and the rate of fiber(More)
The parasitoid wasp Ampulex compressa induces a set of unique behavioral effects upon stinging its prey, the cockroach. It stings into the first thoracic segment inducing 2 to 3 min of transient flaccid paralysis of the front legs. This facilitates a second sting in the cockroach's head that induces 30 min of excessive grooming followed by a 2 to 5-week(More)
Multifunctional motoneurons and muscles, which are active during forward and backward locomotion are ubiquitous in animal models. However, studies in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans suggest that some locomotor motoneurons are necessary only for forward locomotion (dorsal B-motoneurons, DB), while others (dorsal A-motoneurons, DA) are necessary only for(More)
In this article, we provide direct evidence for injection of venom by a wasp into the central nervous system of its cockroach prey. Venomous predators use neurotoxins that generally act at the neuromuscular junction, resulting in different types of prey paralysis. The sting of the parasitoid wasp Ampulex compressa is unusual, as it induces grooming(More)
Rapid escape swims in fish are initiated by the Mauthner cells, giant reticulospinal neurons with unique specializations for swift responses. The Mauthner cells directly activate motoneurons and facilitate predator detection by integrating acoustic, mechanosensory, and visual stimuli. In addition, larval fish show well-coordinated escape responses when(More)
The neuronal connectivity dataset of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans attracts wide attention from computational neuroscientists and experimentalists. However, the dataset is incomplete. The ventral and dorsal nerve cords of a single nematode were reconstructed halfway along the body and the posterior data are missing, leaving 21 of 75 motoneurons of the(More)
Signal transduction through heterotrimeric G proteins is critical for sensory response across species. Regulator of G protein signaling (RGS) proteins are negative regulators of signal transduction. Herein we describe a role for C. elegans RGS-3 in the regulation of sensory behaviors. rgs-3 mutant animals fail to respond to intense sensory stimuli but(More)
Nerve cord motoneurons Neuromuscular junction Major connectivity among motoneurons Major input from interneurons AS Cholinergic to dorsal muscles Synapse to VD that inhibits opposing muscles on ventral side (strongest connection). A gap junction with VA, which excites ventral muscle two muscle lengths posterior. A gap junction with DA. Synaptic input from(More)
24 Rapid escape swims in fish are initiated by the Mauthner cells, giant reticulospinal 25 neurons with unique specializations for swift responses. The Mauthner cells directly 26 activate motoneurons and facilitate predator detection by integrating acoustic, 27 mechanosensory and visual stimuli. In addition, larval fish show well-coordinated escape 28(More)