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Multifunctional motoneurons and muscles, which are active during forward and backward locomotion are ubiquitous in animal models. However, studies in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans suggest that some locomotor motoneurons are necessary only for forward locomotion (dorsal B-motoneurons, DB), while others (dorsal A-motoneurons, DA) are necessary only for(More)
Signal transduction through heterotrimeric G proteins is critical for sensory response across species. Regulator of G protein signaling (RGS) proteins are negative regulators of signal transduction. Herein we describe a role for C. elegans RGS-3 in the regulation of sensory behaviors. rgs-3 mutant animals fail to respond to intense sensory stimuli but(More)
The neuronal connectivity dataset of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans attracts wide attention from computational neuroscientists and experimentalists. However, the dataset is incomplete. The ventral and dorsal nerve cords of a single nematode were reconstructed halfway along the body and the posterior data are missing, leaving 21 of 75 motoneurons of the(More)
BACKGROUND Ablation of TRPV1-expressing nociceptive fibers with the potent capsaicin analog resiniferatoxin (RTX) results in long lasting pain relief. RTX is particularly adaptable to focal application, and the induced chemical axonopathy leads to analgesia with a duration that is influenced by dose, route of administration, and the rate of fiber(More)
Rapid escape swims in fish are initiated by the Mauthner cells, giant reticulospinal neurons with unique specializations for swift responses. The Mauthner cells directly activate motoneurons and facilitate predator detection by integrating acoustic, mechanosensory, and visual stimuli. In addition, larval fish show well-coordinated escape responses when(More)
Nerve cord motoneurons Neuromuscular junction Major connectivity among motoneurons Major input from interneurons AS Cholinergic to dorsal muscles Synapse to VD that inhibits opposing muscles on ventral side (strongest connection). A gap junction with VA, which excites ventral muscle two muscle lengths posterior. A gap junction with DA. Synaptic input from(More)
Figure 1. Mechanosensory skin denticles (MSDs). (A) Astroblepus pholeter. Scale 1 cm. (B) Scanning EM of MSDs; on the head (asterisk marks the eye, scale 1 mm). (C) A club-like MSD protruding from a socket (scale 100 μm). (D) Histological cross-section of base and innervation (arrowhead) of MSD (scale 100 μm). (E) Pseudocolored TEM of MSD socket (yellow:(More)
The interaction of oil and sediment in the environment determines, to a large extent, the trajectory and fate of oil. Using confocal microscope imaging techniques to obtain detailed 3D structures of oil-particle aggregates (OPAs) formed in turbulent flows, we elucidated a new mechanism of particle attachment, whereby the particles behave as projectiles(More)
Cellular metabolism is regulated by the mTOR kinase, a key component of the molecular nutrient sensor pathway that plays a central role in cellular survival and aging. The mTOR pathway promotes protein and lipid synthesis and inhibits autophagy, a process known for its contribution to longevity in several model organisms. The nutrient-sensing pathway is(More)
Physiological responses to nociceptive stimuli are initiated within tens of milliseconds, but the corresponding sub-second behavioral responses have not been adequately explored in awake, unrestrained animals. A detailed understanding of these responses is crucial for progress in pain neurobiology. Here, high-speed videography during nociceptive Aδ fiber(More)
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