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OBJECTIVES To assess whether smoking is a risk factor for developing rheumatoid arthritis (RA). DESIGN Meta-analysis. METHOD DATA SOURCES were observational studies that examined the association between smoking history and the risk of developing RA identified through Medline and EMBASE (from 1966 to December 2006), relevant books and a reference(More)
BACKGROUND Benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) is an environmental contaminant found in cigarette smoke. It is well known that cigarette smoking exacerbates interleukin-8 (IL-8)-related inflammatory skin diseases such as psoriasis, palmoplantar pustulosis and acne. Although BaP has been shown to exert its biological effects via the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR)(More)
BACKGROUND Cathepsin K (CTSK), a cysteine protease with strong collagenolytic properties, is involved in extracellular matrix turnover. In the previous studies, CTSK expression was detected in peritumoral fibroblasts (Fbs) around squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), but not in those surrounding benign epidermal tumors. However, the mechanism governing CTSK(More)
The dioxins and dioxin-like compounds in cigarette smoke regulate various immunological responses via the arylhydrocarbon receptor (AhR). These environmental toxicants are known to cause bronchitis, asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and lung cancer. Recent studies have demonstrated that AhR activation upregulates the expression of mucin(More)
BACKGROUND Broad-spectrum histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors are useful in the treatment of allergic and autoimmune diseases and malignancy. However, use of more specific HDAC inhibitors might limit the toxicities caused by HDAC inhibition. HDAC6, a member of the HDAC family, is highly expressed on CD8 T cells and has been shown to regulate immune(More)
Ketoconazole (KCZ) has been shown to exhibit anti-inflammatory effects in addition to its inhibitory effects against fungi; however, the underlying molecular mechanism remains poorly understood. Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), a receptor that is activated by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons such as dioxin, is a(More)
We report here a case of dermal cutaneous alternariosis in a 69-year-old man with X-linked chronic granulomatous disease (CGD). The lesion on the back of the right hand spread and became indurated, even though oral itraconazole 100 mg daily for 12 weeks was administered. After 28 weeks of treatment with oral fluconazole at 200 mg daily, the lesion(More)
BACKGROUND The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) recognizes diverse small molecules such as dioxins, tryptophan photoproducts and phytochemicals. It also plays crucial roles in epidermal homeostasis by upregulating epidermal barrier proteins. In preliminary screening, we found that Galactomyces fermentation filtrate (GFF), a cosmetic compound, was capable of(More)