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The fly Drosophila melanogaster is one of the most intensively studied organisms in biology and serves as a model system for the investigation of many developmental and cellular processes common to higher eukaryotes, including humans. We have determined the nucleotide sequence of nearly all of the approximately 120-megabase euchromatic portion of the(More)
Variation within genes has important implications for all biological traits. We identified 3899 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that were present within 313 genes from 82 unrelated individuals of diverse ancestry, and we organized the SNPs into 4304 different haplotypes. Each gene had several variable SNPs and haplotypes that were present in all(More)
The trace amine para-tyramine is structurally and functionally related to the amphetamines and the biogenic amine neurotransmitters. It is currently thought that the biological activities elicited by trace amines such as p-tyramine and the psychostimulant amphetamines are manifestations of their ability to inhibit the clearance of extracellular transmitter(More)
Locomotor activity is a polygenic trait that varies widely among inbred strains of mice (). To characterize the role of D2 dopamine receptors in locomotion, we generated F2 hybrid (129/Sv x C57BL/6) D2 dopamine receptor (D2R)-deficient mice by gene targeting and investigated the contribution of genetic background to open-field activity and rotarod(More)
This article has been accepted for publication in a future issue of this journal, but has not been fully edited. Content may change prior to final publication. Abstract—Magnetic resonance (MR) cystography or MR-based virtual cystoscopy is a promising new technology to evaluate the entire bladder in a fully non-invasive manner. It requires the anatomical(More)
Subcellular targeting of the components of the cAMP-dependent pathway is thought to be essential for intracellular signaling. Here we have identified a novel protein, named myomegalin, that interacts with the cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase PDE4D, thereby targeting it to particulate structures. Myomegalin is a large 2,324-amino acid protein mostly(More)
To investigate the effect of the activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) on cerebral ischemic injury, temporospatial alterations of active (diphosphorylated) ERK1/2 immunoreactivity in hippocampus was examined. Western blot showed that diphosphorylated ERK1/2 were decreased at 10 min of cerebral ischemia but increased rapidly(More)
An ultrafast optical shutter was used to image ultrasmall objects hidden behind scattering walls by a procedure that selects in time the ballistic component and rejects the scattered diffusive light. Scattering walls used in this experiment included human breast tissue, chicken breast tissue, and a water suspension of polystyrene particles with scattering(More)
We have reported that a rapid tail vein injection of a large volume of plasmid DNA solution into a mouse results in high level of transgene expression in the liver. Gene transfer efficiency of this hydrodynamics-based procedure is determined by the combined effect of a large volume and high injection speed. Here, we show that the hydrodynamic injection(More)
Mammalian adenylyl cyclases contain two conserved regions, C1 and C2, which are responsible for forskolin- and G-protein-stimulated catalysis. The structure of the C2 catalytic region of type II rat adenylyl cyclase has an alpha/beta class fold in a wreath-like dimer, which has a central cleft. Two forskolin molecules bind in hydrophobic pockets at the ends(More)