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In 2008 we published the first set of guidelines for standardizing research in autophagy. Since then, research on this topic has continued to accelerate, and many new scientists have entered the field. Our knowledge base and relevant new technologies have also been expanding. Accordingly, it is important to update these guidelines for monitoring autophagy(More)
Glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK3) is now recognized as a key component of a surprisingly large number of cellular processes and diseases. Several mechanisms play a part in controlling the actions of GSK3, including phosphorylation, protein complex formation, and subcellular distribution. These are used to control and direct the far-reaching influences of(More)
Huntington's disease (HD) is initiated by an abnormally expanded polyglutamine stretch in the huntingtin protein, conferring a novel property on the protein that leads to the loss of striatal neurons. Defects in mitochondrial function have been implicated in the pathogenesis of HD. Here, we have examined the hypothesis that the mutant huntingtin protein may(More)
Transglutaminase 2 (TG2) is the most widely distributed member of the transglutaminase family with almost all cell types in the body expressing TG2 to varying extents. In addition to being widely expressed, TG2 is an extremely versatile protein exhibiting transamidating, protein disulphide isomerase and guanine and adenine nucleotide binding and hydrolyzing(More)
Site-specific phosphorylation of tau negatively regulates its ability to bind and stabilize microtubule structure. Although tau is a substrate of glycogen synthase kinase 3beta (GSK3beta), the exact sites on tau that are phosphorylated by this kinase in situ have not yet been established, and the effect of these phosphorylation events on tau-microtubule(More)
The in vitro degradation of microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP-2) and spectrin by the calcium-dependent neutral protease calpain was studied. Five major results are reported. First, MAP-2 isolated from twice-cycled microtubules (2 X MT MAP-2) was extremely sensitive to calpain-induced hydrolysis. Even at an enzyme-to-substrate ratio (wt/wt) of 1:200, 2 X(More)
Transglutaminases (TGs) are multifunctional proteins having enzymatic and scaffolding functions that participate in regulation of cell fate in a wide range of cellular systems and are implicated to have roles in development of disease. This review highlights the mechanism of action of these proteins with respect to their structure, impact on cell(More)
Glycogen synthase kinase-3beta (GSK3beta) is a central figure in Wnt signaling, in which its activity is controlled by regulatory binding proteins. Here we show that binding proteins outside the Wnt pathway also control the activity of GSK3beta. DNA damage induced by camptothecin, which activates the tumor suppressor p53, was found to activate GSK3beta.(More)
Tau is a group of neuronal microtubule-associated proteins that are formed by alternative mRNA splicing and accumulate in neurofibrillary tangles in Alzheimer's disease (AD) brain. Tau plays a key role in regulating microtubule dynamics, axonal transport and neurite outgrowth, and all these functions of tau are modulated by site-specific phosphorylation.(More)
Tau is a family of phosphoproteins that are important in modulating microtubule stability in neurons. In Alzheimer's disease tau is abnormally hyperphosphorylated, no longer binds microtubules, and self-assembles to form paired helical filaments that likely contribute to neuron death. Here we demonstrate that normal bovine tau is multiply modified by(More)