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The p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase is a stress-activated enzyme responsible for transducing inflammatory signals and initiating apoptosis. In the Alzheimer's disease (AD) brain, increased levels of phosphorylated (active) p38 were detected relative to age-matched normal brain. Intense phospho-p38 immunoreactivity was associated with neuritic plaques,(More)
The in vitro degradation of microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP-2) and spectrin by the calcium-dependent neutral protease calpain was studied. Five major results are reported. First, MAP-2 isolated from twice-cycled microtubules (2 X MT MAP-2) was extremely sensitive to calpain-induced hydrolysis. Even at an enzyme-to-substrate ratio (wt/wt) of 1:200, 2 X(More)
The polyglutamine-expanded N-terminal region of mutant huntingtin causes neurodegeneration in Huntington's disease (HD). Neuronal intranuclear and cytosolic inclusions composed of mutant huntingtin are found in brains of HD patients. Because tissue transglutaminase cross-links proteins into filamentous aggregates and polypeptide-bound glutamines are primary(More)
Paired helical filaments (PHFs) are the major structural elements of Alzheimer's disease neurofibrillary lesions, and these filaments are formed from hyperphosphorylated brain tau known as PHF-tau. Recent studies showed that many previously identified phosphorylated residues in PHF-tau also are phosphate acceptor sites in fetal and rapidly processed adult(More)
There is significant evidence that energy production impairment and mitochondrial dysfunction play a role in the pathogenesis of Huntington disease. Nonetheless, the specific mitochondrial defects due to the presence of mutant huntingtin have not been fully elucidated. To determine the effects of mutant huntingtin on mitochondrial energy production, a(More)
Microtubule associated protein 2 (MAP-2) historically has been perceived primarily as a static, structural protein, necessary along with other cytoskeletal proteins to maintain neuroarchitecture but somewhat removed from the "mainstream" of neuronal response mechanisms. Quite to the contrary, MAP-2 is exquisitely sensitive to many inputs and recent(More)
The modulation of tau phosphorylation in response to insulin was examined in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells. Insulin treatment resulted in a transient increase in tau phosphorylation followed by a decrease in tau phosphorylation that correlated directly with a sequential activation and deactivation of glycogen synthase kinase-3beta (GSK-3beta). The(More)
Tissue transglutaminase is a normal constituent of the central and peripheral nervous systems and in rats transglutaminase activity in brain and spinal cord is highest during fetal stages when axonal outgrowth is occurring. Further, treatment of human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells with retinoic acid results in the cells withdrawing from the cell cycle and(More)
Tissue transglutaminase (tTG) is a calcium-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the posttranslational modification of proteins by transamidation of specific polypeptide-bound glutamine residues. Previous in vitro studies have demonstrated that the transamidating activity of tTG requires calcium and is inhibited by GTP. To investigate the endogenous regulation of(More)
The modulation of tau phosphorylation and localization in response to insulin-like growth factor-1 or insulin was examined in primary cultures of rat cortical neurons. Insulin and insulin-like growth factor-1 treatment resulted in a rapid and transient increase in tau phosphorylation at specific epitopes. These effects were completely inhibited by lithium,(More)