Gail S Itokazu

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A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of selective decontamination of the oropharynx and gastrointestinal tract was conducted on 61 intubated patients in a medical-surgical intensive care unit (ICU) to determine the impact on nosocomial pneumonia, other infections, and emergence of colonization or infection with antibiotic-resistant bacteria.(More)
We assessed the rates of antimicrobial resistance between 1990 and 1993 in intensive care units in the United States. A standardized microtiter minimal inhibitory concentration panel was used to test approximately 100 consecutive gram-negative aerobic isolates that were recovered primarily from blood, wounds, urine, and pulmonary sites in patients treated(More)
Although the dose of some drugs is commonly adjusted for weight, weight-related dosage adjustments are rarely made for most antimicrobials. We reviewed the English-language literature on antimicrobial pharmacokinetics and dosing in obesity. Although there are many potential pharmacokinetic consequences of obesity, the actual effect on the pharmacokinetics(More)
OBJECTIVE To discuss the pharmacokinetics, spectrum of activity, clinical trials, and adverse effects of cefprozil, cefpodoxime proxetil, loracarbef, cefixime, and ceftibuten, an investigational cephalosporin. DATA SOURCES Literature was identified by a MEDLINE search from 1986 to January 1995. STUDY SELECTION Randomized, controlled studies were(More)
Redundant antibiotic combinations are a potentially remediable source of antibiotic overuse. At a public teaching hospital, we determined the incidence, cost, and indications for such combinations and measured the effects of a pharmacist-based intervention. Of 1189 inpatients receiving >or=2 antibiotics, computer-assisted screening identified 192 patients(More)
We report a pilot study comparing antimicrobial usage and antimicrobial resistance trends for prominent nosocomial pathogens between 1994-1996. A convenience sample of ten hospitals participated in this retrospective review. We found a large variation in antimicrobial use and resistance trends and that many hospitals did not have data readily available to(More)
OBJECTIVE To determine whether randomly selected intravenous (IV) antimicrobial doses dispensed from an inpatient pharmacy were administered. DESIGN This was a prospective, cross-sectional study in which dose administration was confirmed by direct observation and by assessment of the medication administration record (MAR). A retrospective analysis of the(More)
PURPOSE The development and implementation of an extended-infusion piperacillin-tazobactam program at an urban teaching hospital are described. SUMMARY A multidisciplinary team was formed to address the feasibility of converting from the standard 30-minute infusion to an extended infusion of piperacillin- tazobactam. Before hospitalwide implementation,(More)
STUDY OBJECTIVES To assess institutional performance of key diagnostic and therapeutic interventions and to identify areas amenable to improvement in the management of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). DESIGN A chart-based retrospective study. SETTING Cook County Hospital, a large, urban, public teaching hospital. PATIENTS Adult inpatients with a(More)