Gail R. Martin

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We have devised a simple and efficient cDNA cloning strategy that overcomes many of the difficulties encountered in obtaining full-length cDNA clones of low-abundance mRNAs. In essence, cDNAs are generated by using the DNA polymerase chain reaction technique to amplify copies of the region between a single point in the transcript and the 3' or 5' end. The(More)
Evidence is accumulating that members of the FGF gene family provide signals that act locally to regulate growth and patterning in vertebrate embryos. In this report, we provide a detailed analysis of the mouse Fgf8 gene. We have mapped the Fgf8 locus to the distal region of mouse chromosome 19, and sequenced the 5' coding region of the gene. Our data(More)
We describe a strategy for generating an allelic series of mutations at a given locus that requires the production of only one targetted mouse line. The ‘allelogenic’ mouse line we produced carries a hypomorphic allele of Fgf8, which can be converted to a null allele by mating to ere transgenic animals. The hypomorphic allele can also be reverted to(More)
We provide evidence that FGF8 serves as an endogenous inducer of chick limb formation and that its expression in the intermediate mesoderm at the appropriate time and place to trigger forelimb development is directly linked to the mechanism of embryonic kidney differentiation. One function of the limb inducer is to initiate Fgf8 gene expression in the(More)
Vertebrate midbrain development depends on an organizing centre located at the isthmus, a constriction in the embryonic mid/hindbrain region. Isthmic tissue grafts transform chick caudal forebrain into an ectopic midbrain that is the mirror image of the normal midbrain. Here we report that FGF8 protein has the same midbrain-inducing and polarizing effect as(More)
Limb development depends on signals from the apical ectodermal ridge and underlying mesenchyme. Fibroblast growth factor (FGF) can replace the ridge and, because Fgf4 RNA is localized to the mouse posterior ridge, we proposed that FGF4 is the endogenous ridge signal. Ridge signals control limb outgrowth and maintain the zone of polarizing activity (ZPA) at(More)
MicroRNAs comprise a broad class of small non-coding RNAs that control expression of complementary target messenger RNAs. Dysregulation of microRNAs by several mechanisms has been described in various disease states including cardiac disease. Whereas previous studies of cardiac disease have focused on microRNAs that are primarily expressed in(More)
The expression patterns of four genes that are potential regulators of development were examined in the CNS of the embryonic day 12.5 mouse embryo. Three of the genes, Dlx-1, Dlx-2 (Tes-1), and Gbx-2, encode homeodomain-containing proteins, and one gene, Wnt-3, encodes a putative secreted differentiation factor. These genes are expressed in spatially(More)
The Drosophila sprouty gene encodes an antagonist of FGF and EGF signaling whose expression is induced by the signaling pathways that it inhibits. Here we describe a family of vertebrate Sprouty homologs and demonstrate that the regulatory relationship with FGF pathways has been conserved. In both mouse and chick embryos, Sprouty genes are expressed in(More)
The apical ectodermal ridge plays a key role in limb development. We show that recombinant FGF-4 can substitute for the ridge to provide all the signals necessary for virtually complete outgrowth and patterning of the chick limb. FGF-4 stimulates proliferation of cells in the distal mesenchyme and maintains a signal from the posterior to the distal(More)