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Methylglyoxal is a toxic electrophile. In Escherichia coli cells, the principal route of methylglyoxal production is from dihydroxyacetone phosphate by the action of methylglyoxal synthase. The toxicity of methylglyoxal is believed to be due to its ability to interact with the nucleophilic centres of macromolecules such as DNA. Bacteria possess an array of(More)
The role of the tripeptide glutathione in the growth and survival of Escherichia coli cells has been investigated. Glutathione-deficient mutants leak potassium and have a reduced cytoplasmic pH. These mutants are more sensitive to methylglyoxal than the parent strain, indicating that in the absence of glutathione-dependent detoxification, acidification of(More)
Free-living Sinorhizobium meliloti lpxXL and acpXL mutants lack lipid A very-long-chain fatty acids (VLCFAs) and have reduced competitiveness in alfalfa. We demonstrate that LpxXL and AcpXL play important but distinct roles in bacteroid development and that LpxXL is essential for the modification of S. meliloti bacteroid lipid A with VLCFAs.
The glyoxalase I gene (gloA) of Escherichia coli has been cloned and used to create a null mutant. Cells overexpressing glyoxalase I exhibit enhanced tolerance of methylglyoxal (MG) and exhibit elevated rates of detoxification, although the increase is not stoichiometric with the change in enzyme activity. Potassium efflux via KefB is also enhanced in the(More)
Blood-brain barrier (BBB) controls paracellular solute diffusion into the brain microenvironment and is maintained primarily by tight junctions between adjacent microvascular endothelial cells. Studies implicate blood flow-associated shear stress as a pathophysiological mediator of BBB function, although detailed biochemical data are scarce. We hypothesize(More)
Escherichia coli are exposed to toxic electrophiles from both endogenous and exogenous sources. To survive, E. coli have developed novel protective mechanisms that appear unique to bacteria. In the absence of one of these mechanisms, electrophiles induce rapid killing. Hence it appears that electrophile-protective mechanisms represent novel targets for(More)
We study the migration of chemotactic wild-type Escherichia coli populations in semisolid (soft) agar in the concentration range C = 0.15-0.5% (w/v). For C≲0.35%, expanding bacterial colonies display characteristic chemotactic rings. At C = 0.35%, however, bacteria migrate as broad circular bands rather than sharp rings. These are growth/diffusion waves(More)
Sinorhizobium meliloti differentiates into persisting, nitrogen-fixing bacteroids within root nodules of the legume Medicago truncatula. Nodule-specific cysteine-rich antimicrobial peptides (NCR AMPs) and the bacterial BacA protein are essential for bacteroid development. However, the bacterial factors central to the NCR AMP response and the in planta role(More)
Transplantation of pig tissues into humans has the potential for cotransferring pig infections. Knowledge of the epidemiology of pig infections transmissible to humans allows the development of risk limitation strategies at the source herd level, but potentially infectious pig endogenous retrovirus (PERV) is ubiquitous in all domestic pigs and therefore is(More)
Streptomyces sp. strain C34, isolated from soil collected in the Chilean hyper-arid Atacama Desert, was cultured on different media, resulting in the isolation and identification of four new ansamycin-type polyketides. The organism was selected for chemical investigation on the basis of a genome-mining PCR-based experiment targeting the gene encoding(More)