Gail D. Chapman

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Bacillus anthracis is the etiologic agent of anthrax, an acute fatal disease among mammals. It was thought to differ from Bacillus cereus, an opportunistic pathogen and cause of food poisoning, by the presence of plasmids pXO1 and pXO2, which encode the lethal toxin complex and the poly-gamma-d-glutamic acid capsule, respectively. This work describes a(More)
PURPOSE Surveillance for patients with meningitis is a high priority in order to determine the etiology of disease and design prevention strategies. This study presents data on the causes of bacterial meningitis among children <6 years of age treated in a network of hospitals throughout Egypt. METHODS Training was provided to standardize the collection of(More)
Since the first HIV case was diagnosed in the Czech Republic in 1985, there is a lack of information regarding the epidemiology of HIV infection in most high-risk groups. To determine the prevalence of, and risk factors for, HIV among female and male commercial sex workers (FCSW and MCSW, respectively) and injecting drug users (IDUs), cross-sectional(More)
Both laboratory and epidemiological studies published over the past two decades have identified the risk of excess hearing loss when specific chemical contaminants are present along with noise. The objective of this study was to evaluate the potency of JP-8 jet fuel to enhance noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) using inhalation exposure to fuel and(More)
Genetic manipulation of the vasculature may offer insights into the pathogenesis of coronary artery disease and may lead to gene therapy for disorders such as restenosis after percutaneous coronary angioplasty. The goal of this study was to develop a percutaneous method for gene transfer into coronary arteries of intact animals. Liposomes were used to(More)
The central nervous system (CNS) appears to be the critical target of manganese (Mn), and neurotoxicity has been the focus of most of the health effects of manganese. In brain, the mechanism underlying the Mn-induced cell death is not clear. We have previously demonstrated that NFkappabeta induction and the activation of nitric oxide synthase through(More)
The use of tungsten as a replacement for lead and depleted uranium in munitions began in the mid 1990's. Recent reports demonstrate tungsten solubilizes in soil and can migrate into drinking water supplies and therefore is a potential health risk to humans. This study evaluated the reproductive and neurobehavioral effects of sodium tungstate in(More)
The debate on tungsten (W) is fostered by its continuous usage in military munitions. Reports demonstrate W solubilizes in soil and can migrate into drinking water supplies and, therefore, is a potential health risk to humans. This study evaluated the reproductive, systemic and neurobehavioral effects of sodium tungstate (NaW) in rats following 70 days of(More)
Respiratory symptoms are frequently reported in personnel deployed to the Middle East. This project characterized the respiratory toxicity of inhaled Iraqi sand (IS). Adult rats underwent a 6-wk inhalation to air or mainstream cigarette smoke (MSCS) (3 h/d, 5 d/wk) that included exposure to IS or crystalline silica (1 mg/m(3), 19 h/d, 7 d/wk) or air during(More)
The three-dimensional structure of the neurofilamentous network of the giant axon of the squid has been investigated by stereo electron microscopy and optical image analysis. The neurofilamentous network with its structural associations intact was partially purified by means of extraction of extruded axoplasm in a physiological buffer. The authors employed(More)