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The debate on tungsten (W) is fostered by its continuous usage in military munitions. Reports demonstrate W solubilizes in soil and can migrate into drinking water supplies and, therefore, is a potential health risk to humans. This study evaluated the reproductive, systemic and neurobehavioral effects of sodium tungstate (NaW) in rats following 70 days of(More)
The use of tungsten as a replacement for lead and depleted uranium in munitions began in the mid 1990's. Recent reports demonstrate tungsten solubilizes in soil and can migrate into drinking water supplies and therefore is a potential health risk to humans. This study evaluated the reproductive and neurobehavioral effects of sodium tungstate in(More)
The central nervous system (CNS) appears to be the critical target of manganese (Mn), and neurotoxicity has been the focus of most of the health effects of manganese. In brain, the mechanism underlying the Mn-induced cell death is not clear. We have previously demonstrated that NFkappabeta induction and the activation of nitric oxide synthase through(More)
Aerosol cloud formation may occur when certain tungsten munitions strike hard targets, placing military personnel at increased risk of exposure. Although the pharmacokinetics of various forms of tungsten have been studied in animals following intravenous and oral administration, tungsten disposition following inhalation remains incompletely characterized.(More)
Manganese (Mn) is an essential mineral that is found in varying amounts in aerosols or dust. Exposure to atmospheric Mn at high concentration is a risk factor in humans that can manifest as neuronal degeneration resembling Parkinson's disease (PD). Since the underlying mechanism of Mn and dopamine (DA) interaction-induced cell death remains unclear, here,(More)
Bacillus anthracis is the etiologic agent of anthrax, an acute fatal disease among mammals. It was thought to differ from Bacillus cereus, an opportunistic pathogen and cause of food poisoning, by the presence of plasmids pXO1 and pXO2, which encode the lethal toxin complex and the poly-gamma-d-glutamic acid capsule, respectively. This work describes a(More)
Genetic manipulation of the vasculature may offer insights into the pathogenesis of coronary artery disease and may lead to gene therapy for disorders such as restenosis after percutaneous coronary angioplasty. The goal of this study was to develop a percutaneous method for gene transfer into coronary arteries of intact animals. Liposomes were used to(More)
The genetic subtypes of HIV-1 in the Sudan epidemic have not been characterized. Here we report the partial sequencing and analysis of 30 strains collected from HIV-1-positive patients and blood donors in Khartoum in 1998 and 1999. From analysis of partial pol and env sequences, it was determined that 50% were subtype D and 30% were subtype C. Of interest,(More)
PURPOSE Surveillance for patients with meningitis is a high priority in order to determine the etiology of disease and design prevention strategies. This study presents data on the causes of bacterial meningitis among children <6 years of age treated in a network of hospitals throughout Egypt. METHODS Training was provided to standardize the collection of(More)
In Egypt, the etiology of chronic renal failure (CRF) is not well defined. A hospital-based case-control study was initiated in February 1998, to determine whether hantavirus infection is involved in chronic renal disease (CRD) in Egypt. The study enrolled 350 study patients with a history of CRF and 695 matched controls with CRD due to renal calculus or(More)