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In the past few decades, computer science has driven innovation across a variety of academic fields and become a robust part of democratic participation and the labor economy. Today's youth are surrounded with applications of these new technologies that impact how they access and produce information and communicate with friends, family, and educators. Yet,(More)
The central nervous system (CNS) appears to be the critical target of manganese (Mn), and neurotoxicity has been the focus of most of the health effects of manganese. In brain, the mechanism underlying the Mn-induced cell death is not clear. We have previously demonstrated that NFkappabeta induction and the activation of nitric oxide synthase through(More)
The use of tungsten as a replacement for lead and depleted uranium in munitions began in the mid 1990's. Recent reports demonstrate tungsten solubilizes in soil and can migrate into drinking water supplies and therefore is a potential health risk to humans. This study evaluated the reproductive and neurobehavioral effects of sodium tungstate in(More)
Manganese (Mn) is an essential mineral that is found in varying amounts in aerosols or dust. Exposure to atmospheric Mn at high concentration is a risk factor in humans that can manifest as neuronal degeneration resembling Parkinson's disease (PD). Since the underlying mechanism of Mn and dopamine (DA) interaction-induced cell death remains unclear, here,(More)
Olfactory transport of represents an important mechanism for direct delivery of certain metals to the central nervous system (CNS). The objective of this study was to determine whether inhaled tungsten (W) undergoes olfactory uptake and transport to the rat brain. Male, 16-week-old, Sprague-Dawley rats underwent a single, 90-min, nose-only exposure to a(More)
Gene therapy approaches have been suggested for the treatment of cardiovascular disease. Recently, direct transfer of the gene encoding beta-galactosidase into peripheral arteries of the pig has been demonstrated. To determine whether this approach is applicable to other arterial beds and to other species, we first evaluated the use of beta-galactosidase as(More)
roadening participation " and " equity " are now common parlance among computer science reform educators who are challenging the underrepresentation in computer science. However, what do we all mean by these words and phrases? In this article, we discuss the key theoretical components of our strategy for broadening participation and increasing equity in(More)
In recent years, the computer science education community has shown strong commitment to broadening participation in computing in K-12 classrooms. Educational research highlights the critical role of professional development in supporting teachers to attract and effectively teach underrepresented students in computing. In this paper we present the Exploring(More)
T he computer science education community has been on a wild ride recently. After decades of feeling like we were speaking to the wall, today numerous non-profits, industry, state and national politicians, policy makers, school districts, social media, and parents are beginning to pay attention and speak out of the need for more access to K-12 computer(More)