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To investigate the roles of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and lymphotoxin (LT)-alpha in the development and function of the immune system, the Tnf and Ltalpha genes were simultaneously inactivated in mice by homologous recombination. These mutant mice are highly susceptible to Listeria monocytogenes infection and resistant to endotoxic shock induced by the(More)
Cyclophilin (CYP) is the major intracellular binding protein for the immunosuppressive drug cyclosporine (CS). CYP distribution was investigated in human tissues by solid-phase immunoassay, Western and Northern blot analysis as well as immunohistochemistry. CYP was found in all tissues examined at concentrations in the range of 1 microgram/mg protein.(More)
Interleukin 12 (IL-12) activates natural killer (NK) and T cells with the secondary synthesis and release of interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) and other cytokines. IL-12-induced organ alterations are reported for mice and the pathogenetic role of IFN-gamma is investigated by the use of mice deficient in the IFN-gamma receptor (IFN-gamma R-/-). IL-12 caused a(More)
Interleukin-6 (IL-6) has been ascribed significant roles in both hematopoiesis and the immune response, although its contribution to host defence as a whole is poorly understood. Because short-term IL-6 treatment was previously shown to stimulate megakaryocytopoiesis, we investigated the effect of long-term administration of IL-6 on megakaryocytopoiesis and(More)
The inhibitory effect of cyclosporin (CsA) was investigated on human lymphocytes stimulated by anti-T-cell antibodies (anti-CD3 and -CD2) or mitogenic lectins. Whereas inhibition of cell proliferation (50%) occurred at 10 ng/ml CsA after cell activation via CD3 or CD2, higher CsA concentrations (300 ng/ml) were necessary to inhibit lectin-mediated cell(More)
Although cyclosporine has high specificity for the immune system, immunosuppressive therapy with CsA is often complicated by nephrotoxicity. The main morphologic targets of CsA nephrotoxicity include the tubular epithelial and endothelial cells. These cells were investigated in vitro. CsA caused a dose- and time-dependent inhibition of cell growth,(More)
Induction of growth inhibition in human colorectal carcinoma cell lines by interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-13 was associated with the neophosphorylation of a 170 kDa cellular protein, identified as insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1) by immunoprecipitation. Tyrosine phosphorylation of IRS-I was also induced by insulin and insulin-like growth factor I. Sublines(More)
The immunosuppressive agent cyclosporine A (CSA) has been shown to reverse multidrug resistance (MDR) in malignant cells. In the present study, a 3H-cyclosporine diazirine analogue (3H-PL-CS) was used to photolabel viable MDR cells. The 170 kDa membrane P-glycoprotein, which functions as a drug efflux pump, was strongly labeled. The binding of(More)
Interleukin 4 (IL4) produced by activated T cells expresses its biological effects on T and B lymphocytes by binding to specific membrane receptors. Cross-linking of human recombinant 125I-IL4 to peripheral blood mononuclear cells identifies a trimolecular complex consisting of a 65/70-kDa doublet and a 110-kDa protein. Scatchard analysis reveals about 300(More)
The immunosuppressive macrolide rapamycin inhibits cytokine-driven proliferation of lymphocytes, acting at a later stage of T lymphocyte activation than the related compound FK506 or cyclosporin, which block IL-2 transcription. However, the effect of rapamycin on the expression of the IL-2 receptor alpha-chain (CD25) is less well documented. This study has(More)