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Photosystem II reaction centers in plants, algae, and cyanobacteria are susceptible to damage by excess light that irreversibly impairs activity and eventually results in the proteolytic degradation of at least one of the core proteins. The sequence of events and underlying molecular mechanisms that lead to photoinhibition are poorly understood. Here we(More)
In most plants and algae, a down-regulation of photosynthesis under "excess" light conditions occurs which is associated with a quenching of chlorophyll a fluorescence. This nonphotochemical quenching of chlorophyll a fluorescence most likely arises from a mechanism which protects photosystem II from excessive excitation and resulting photoinhibition. In(More)
Brown algae (Phaeophyceae) are complex photosynthetic organisms with a very different evolutionary history to green plants, to which they are only distantly related. These seaweeds are the dominant species in rocky coastal ecosystems and they exhibit many interesting adaptations to these, often harsh, environments. Brown algae are also one of only a small(More)
Light that exceeds the photosynthetic capacity of a plant can impair the ability of photosystem II to oxidize water. The light-induced inhibition is initiated by inopportune electron transport reactions that create damaging redox states. There is evidence that secondary electron transport pathways within the photosystem II reaction center can protect(More)
Red seaweeds are key components of coastal ecosystems and are economically important as food and as a source of gelling agents, but their genes and genomes have received little attention. Here we report the sequencing of the 105-Mbp genome of the florideophyte Chondrus crispus (Irish moss) and the annotation of the 9,606 genes. The genome features an(More)
• Ectocarpus siliculosus has been proposed as a genetic and genomic model for the brown algae and the 214  Mbp genome of this organism has been sequenced. The aim of this project was to obtain a chromosome-scale view of the genome by constructing a genetic map using microsatellite markers that were designed based on the sequence supercontigs. • To map(More)
The enzyme superoxide dismutase is ubiquitous in aerobic organisms where it plays a major role in alleviating oxygen-radical toxicity. An insertion mutation introduced into the iron superoxide dismutase locus (designated sodB) of the cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. PCC 7942 created a mutant strain devoid of detectable iron superoxide dismutase activity.(More)
Polyploidization is an important process in the evolution of eukaryotic genomes, but ensuing molecular mechanisms remain to be clarified. Autopolyploidization or whole-genome duplication events frequently are resolved in resulting lineages by the loss of single genes from most duplicated pairs, causing transient gene dosage imbalance and accelerating(More)
Chromosome 14 is one of five acrocentric chromosomes in the human genome. These chromosomes are characterized by a heterochromatic short arm that contains essentially ribosomal RNA genes, and a euchromatic long arm in which most, if not all, of the protein-coding genes are located. The finished sequence of human chromosome 14 comprises 87,410,661 base(More)
Massively parallel DNA sequencing instruments are enabling the decoding of whole genomes at significantly lower cost and higher throughput than classical Sanger technology. Each of these technologies have been estimated to yield assemblies with more problematic features than the standard method. These problems are of a different nature depending on the(More)
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