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The protein coding regions of plastid mRNAs in higher plants are generally flanked by 3' inverted repeat sequences. In spinach chloroplast mRNAs, these inverted repeat sequences can fold into stem-loop structures and serve as signals for the correct processing of the mature mRNA 3' ends. The inverted repeat sequences are also required to stabilize 5'(More)
Correct 3' processing of chloroplast precursor mRNAs (pre-mRNAs) requires a stem-loop structure within the 3' untranslated region. In spinach, a stable 3' stem-loop-protein complex has been shown to form in vitro between petD pre-mRNA, encoding subunit IV of the cytochrome b6/f complex, and chloroplast proteins. This complex contains three chloroplast(More)
In this work, we report the posttranscriptional addition of poly(A)-rich sequences to mRNA in chloroplasts of higher plants. Several sites in the coding region and the mature end of spinach chloroplast psbA mRNA, which encodes the D1 protein of photosystem II, are detected as polyadenylylated sites. In eukaryotic cells, the addition of multiple adenosine(More)
The psbB-psbT-psbH-petB-petD operon of higher plant chloroplasts is a heterogeneously composed transcriptional unit that undergoes complex RNA processing events until the mature oligocistronic RNAs are formed. To identify the nucleus-encoded factors required for the processing and expression of psbB-psbT-psbH-petB-petD transcripts, we performed mutational(More)
In the absence of efficient transcription termination correct 3'-end processing is an essential step in the synthesis of stable chloroplast mRNAs in higher plants. We show here that 3'-end processing in vitro involves endonucleolytic cleavage downstream from the mature terminus, followed by exonucleolytic processing to a stem-loop within the 3'-untranslated(More)
Visceral left-right asymmetry occurs in all vertebrates, but the inversion of embryo turning (inv) mouse, which resulted following a random transgene insertion, is the only model in which these asymmetries are consistently reversed. We report positional cloning of the gene underlying this recessive phenotype. Although transgene insertion was accompanied by(More)
The energy distribution, state transitions and photosynthetic electron flow during photoinhibition of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii cells have been studied in vivo using photoacoustics and modulated fluorescence techniques. In cells exposed to 2500 W/m2 light at 21 °C for 90 min, 90% of the oxygen evolution activity was lost while photochemical energy storage(More)
In Escherichia coli, the exoribonuclease polynucleotide phosphorylase (PNPase), the endoribonuclease RNase E, a DEAD-RNA helicase and the glycolytic enzyme enolase are associated with a high molecular weight complex, the degradosome. This complex has an important role in processing and degradation of RNA. Chloroplasts contain an exoribonuclease homologous(More)
A general characteristic of the 3′-untranslated regions (3′ UTRs) of plastid mRNAs is an inverted repeat (IR) sequence that can fold into a stem-loop structure. These stem-loops are RNA 3′-end processing signals and determinants of mRNA stability, not transcription terminators. Incubation of synthetic RNAs corresponding to the 3′ UTRs of Chlamydomonas(More)