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Opioid and excitatory amino acid receptors contribute to morphine dependence, but there are no studies of their role in heroin dependence. Thus, mice injected with acute or chronic heroin doses in the present study were pretreated with one of the following selective antagonists: 7-benzylidenenaltrexone (BNTX), naltriben (NTB), nor-binaltorphimine (nor-BNI;(More)
Heroin and morphine exposure can cause physical dependence, with symptoms manifesting during their withdrawal. Inter-individual differences in symptom frequency during morphine withdrawal are a common finding that, in rodents, is demonstrably attributable to genotype. However, it is not known whether inter-individual differences characterize heroin(More)
Opioids are extensively used analgesics yet can paradoxically increase pain sensitivity in humans and rodents. This hyperalgesia is extensively conceptualized to be a consequence of opioid receptor activity, perhaps providing an adaptive response to analgesia, and to utilize N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors. These assumptions were tested here in opioid(More)
Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is commonly used to localize brain function, but its utility in the clinical setting remains unclear. Subdural electrode implantation provides opportunities to correlate the spatial relationship of the blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) response to areas defined by extraoperative electrical stimulation mapping(More)
Hyperalgesia following chronic morphine treatment is thought to be a response to opioid receptor activation and analgesia and contribute to the development of analgesic tolerance. Here, the relationship between these variables was studied in mice tested for nociceptive sensitivity on the tail-withdrawal test during chronic infusion of various morphine(More)
Morphine treatment can paradoxically increase nociception (i.e. hyperalgesia). Since there are putative sex differences in nociception and morphine sensitivity, we compared nociception in male and female mice using the tail-withdrawal test during continuous infusion of two morphine doses (1.6 and 40.0 mg/kg/24 h). Both doses caused hyperalgesia in both(More)
BACKGROUND N-Methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonists reverse hyperalgesia during morphine infusion in male mice only. Because the melanocortin-1 receptor can act as a female-specific counterpart to N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors in kappa-opioid analgesic mechanisms, the authors assessed the contribution of melanocortin-1 receptors to the sex-specific(More)