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BACKGROUND Depressed patients are biased in their response to negative information. They have been found to show a maladaptive behavioral and aberrant electrophysiological response to negative feedback. The aim of this study was to investigate the behavioral and electrophysiological response to feedback validity in drug-free depressed patients. METHOD(More)
RATIONALE Recent studies have shown that serotonin might be involved in performance monitoring, although the results have been inconclusive. Inconsistent results might be related to the type of pharmacological manipulation and the used behavioral and physiological measures. OBJECTIVES The present study aimed at further specifying the role of serotonin in(More)
The present study examined the role of the rostral cingulate zone (RCZ) in feedback processing, and especially focused on effects of modality of the feedback stimulus and remedial action. Participants performed a time-estimation task in which they had to estimate a 1-second interval. After the estimation participants received verbal (correct/false) or(More)
In the present study, the effects of transiently lowering central serotonin levels by means of acute tryptophan depletion on measures of cognitive flexibility were examined. Flexible behaviour was measured in an Eriksen flanker task, and cardiac and electro-cortical responses to errors and congruent and incongruent stimuli were measured. The depletion was(More)
This study examined the role of the medial frontal cortex in the processing of valence and validity of performance feedback using a time-estimation paradigm. Participants had to produce 1s intervals followed by positive and negative feedback that could be valid or invalid (i.e., related or unrelated to task performance). Performance results showed that(More)
Temporal reward discounting (TD) refers to the decrease in subjective value of a reward when the delay to that reward increases. In recent years, a growing number of studies on the neural correlates of temporal reward discounting have been conducted. This article focuses on functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies on TD in humans. First, we(More)
OBJECTIVE Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is characterized by cognitive deficits (e.g., interference control) and altered reward processing. Cognitive control is influenced by incentive motivation and according to current theoretical models, ADHD is associated with abnormal interactions between incentive motivation and cognitive control.(More)
A preference for smaller immediate rewards over larger delayed rewards (delay discounting, DD) is common in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), but rarely investigated in depression. Whether this preference is due to sensitivity to reward immediacy or delay aversion remains unclear. To investigate this, we examined whether ADHD and depressive(More)
Disturbances in feedback processing and a dysregulation of the neural circuit in which the cingulate cortex plays a key role have been frequently observed in depression. Since depression is a heterogeneous disease, instead of focusing on the depressive state in general, this study investigated the relations between the two core symptoms of depression, i.e.,(More)
With great interest, we have read the letter 'Cardiac slowing and acute tryptophan depletion: a comment on the paper by van der Veen et al.' by Hood et al. This letter is a comment on a recent paper by our group (van der Veen et al. 2008) describing the differential effects of acute tryptophan depletion (ATD) on cardiac and electro-cortical measures of(More)
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