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The mammalian central nervous system (CNS) contains a remarkable array of neural cells, each with a complex pattern of connections that together generate perceptions and higher brain functions. Here we describe a large-scale screen to create an atlas of CNS gene expression at the cellular level, and to provide a library of verified bacterial artificial(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE One in 3 individuals will experience a stroke, dementia or both. Moreover, twice as many individuals will have cognitive impairment short of dementia as either stroke or dementia. The commonly used stroke scales do not measure cognition, while dementia criteria focus on the late stages of cognitive impairment, and are heavily biased(More)
Catecholamine synthetic enzymes are found in many cranial parasympathetic principal neurons, and in the small intensely fluorescent (SIF) cells that populate parasympathetic as well as sympathetic ganglia. While there is evidence that the acquisition of noradrenergic properties in sympathetic neuron precursors depends on factors that these cells encounter(More)
During the past decade, substantial progress has been made in delineating clinical features of the epilepsies and the basic mechanisms responsible for these disorders. Eleven human epilepsy genes have been identified and many more are now known from animal models. Candidate targets for cures are now based upon newly identified cellular and molecular(More)
Animal models have contributed significantly to our understanding of the underlying biological mechanisms of Alzheimer's disease (AD). As a result, over 300 interventions have been investigated and reported to mitigate pathological phenotypes or improve behavior in AD animal models or both. To date, however, very few of these findings have resulted in(More)
Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is widely distributed in the sympathetic nervous system, where it is colocalized with norepinephrine. We report here that NPY-immunoreactive neurons are also abundant in three cranial parasympathetic ganglia, the otic, sphenopalatine, and ciliary, in the rat. High-performance liquid chromatographic analysis of the immunoreactive(More)
Several studies have suggested that the development of cholinergic properties in cranial parasympathetic neurons is determined by these cells' axial level of origin in the neural crest. All cranial parasympathetic neurons normally derive from cranial neural crest. Trunk neural crest cells give rise to sympathetic neurons, most of which are noradrenergic. To(More)
We recently showed that neuropeptide Y (NPY)-like immunoreactivity occurs in subpopulations of neurons in 3 cranial parasympathetic ganglia: the otic, sphenopalatine, and ciliary. The present work identifies the target tissues innervated by cranial parasympathetic NPY-immunoreactive neurons. Plexuses of NPY-immunoreactive fibers were observed in the parotid(More)
Cranial and trunk neural crest cells produce different derivatives in vitro. Cranial neural crest cultures produce large numbers of cells expressing fibronectin (FN) and procollagen I (PCol I) immunoreactivities, two markers expressed by mesenchymal derivatives in vivo. Trunk neural crest cultures produce relatively few FN or PCol I immunoreactive cells,(More)
Perceptual and cognitive disorders that frequently accompany stroke and head injury influence an individual's ability to drive a motor vehicle. Canadian physicians are legally responsible for identifying patients who are potentially unsafe to drive and, if they fail to do so, may be held liable in a civil action suit. The authors review the guidelines for(More)