Gabriella Spengler

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Multidrug resistance in Gram-negative bacteria is now known to be primarily caused by overexpression of efflux pumps that extrude unrelated antibiotics from the periplasm or cytoplasm of the bacterium prior to their reaching their intended target. This review focuses on a variety of agents that have been shown to be efflux pump inhibitors (EPIs) and which,(More)
BACKGROUND Resistance Nodulation Division (RND) efflux pumps of Escherichia coli extrude antibiotics and toxic substances before they reach their intended targets. Whereas these pumps obtain their energy directly from the proton motive force (PMF), ATP-Binding Cassette (ABC) transporters, which can also extrude antibiotics, obtain energy from the hydrolysis(More)
UNLABELLED The tumor-inducing effects of Agrobacterium, Bartonella and Helicobacter bacterial species are compared step by step. An analogy for the existence of these individual steps is considered in connection with the development of cancer. The transformations of eukaryotic cells occur in particular in the type IV secretion system, i.e. involving the(More)
The giant radio galaxy M 87 with its proximity (16 Mpc), famous jet, and very massive black hole ((3 − 6) × 109M ) provides a unique opportunity to investigate the origin of very high energy (VHE; E>100 GeV) γ-ray emission generated in relativistic outflows and the surroundings of super-massive black holes. M 87 has been established as a VHE γ-ray emitter(More)
Cytoplasmic immunoglobulins in human bone marrow plasma cells and lymphoid cells were characterized by direct immunofluorescence with fluorochrome-labelled reagents specific for immunoglobulin heavy and light chains. The percentage distribution of cells containing IgA, IgG or IgM and kappa- or lambda-immunoglobulins was determined in bone marrow samples(More)
Fractionated extracts of persimmon (Diospyros kaki) peels were studied for cytotoxic activity, multidrug resistance (MDR) reversal activity, anti-human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) activity and anti-Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) activity. The potent cytotoxic activity against human oral squamous cell carcinoma cells (HSC-2) and human submandibular gland(More)
A semi-automated method that uses the common efflux pump (EP) substrate ethidium bromide (EB) is described for the assessment of EP systems of bacteria. The method employs the Rotor-Gene(TM) 3000 thermocycler (Corbett Research) for the real-time assessment of accumulation and efflux of EB in Phosphate-Buffered Solution (PBS) under varying physiological(More)
This review discusses the relationship of the efflux pump (EP) system of Gram-negative bacteria to other antibiotic resistance mechanisms of the bacterium such as quorum sensing, biofilms, two component regulons, etc. The genetic responses of a Gram-negative to an antibiotic that render it immune to an antibiotic are also discussed. Lastly, the methods that(More)
AIM To evaluate a new series of 16 hydantoin derivatives for activity against the intrinsic and overexpressed efflux pumps of the ATTC 25923 Staphylococcus aureus and the clinical Staphylococcus aureus HPV-107 strain, respectively. MATERIALS AND METHODS The hydantoin compounds were evaluated for activity against the efflux pumps of the ATTC 25923 S.(More)
Several new 3-formylchromone derivatives proved to be modifiers of multidrug resistance in mouse lymphoma cells and in human Colo320 colon cancer cells. There is apparently a structure-activity relationship between the antiproliferative multidrug resistance-reversing effect and the chemical structure of the 3-formylchromones. The total polar surface areas(More)