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Glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) is the biosynthetic enzyme for gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system (CNS) of vertebrates. In addition to the adult CNS, GABA and GAD also have been detected in embryos, although their precise localization and specific functions in embryonic development have not(More)
The espin actin-bundling proteins, which are the target of the jerker deafness mutation, caused a dramatic, concentration-dependent lengthening of LLC-PK1-CL4 cell microvilli and their parallel actin bundles. Espin level was also positively correlated with stereocilium length in hair cells. Villin, but not fascin or fimbrin, also produced noticeable(More)
Unipolar brush cells (UBCs) are a class of excitatory, glutamatergic interneurons occurring at high density in the granular layer of the vestibulo-cerebellum. UBCs are intermediate in size between granule cells, which in rat originate postnatally from precursors in the external granular layer, and Golgi cells, which are generated prenatally and postnatally(More)
Epidermal growth factor receptor pathway substrate 8 (Eps8) is a widely expressed multidomain signaling protein that coordinates two disparate GTPase-dependent mechanisms: actin reorganization via Ras/Rac pathways and receptor trafficking via Rab5. Expression of Eps8, the gene encoding the founding member of the Eps8 family of proteins, was found in(More)
The transcriptional regulation of the murine gene encoding the 67-kDa form of glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD67) was studied by beta-galactosidase histochemistry in transgenic mice carrying fusion genes between progressively longer portions of the 5'-upstream regulatory region of GAD67 and E. coli lacZ. No expression was detected in brains of mice carrying(More)
Unipolar brush cells (UBC) are small, glutamatergic neurons residing in the granular layer of the cerebellar cortex and the granule cell domain of the cochlear nuclear complex. Recent studies indicate that this neuronal class consists of three or more subsets characterized by distinct chemical phenotypes, as well as by intrinsic properties that may shape(More)
Espins are associated with the parallel actin bundles of hair cell stereocilia and are the target of mutations that cause deafness and vestibular dysfunction in mice and humans. Here, we report that espins are also concentrated in the microvilli of a number of other sensory cells: vomeronasal organ sensory neurons, solitary chemoreceptor cells, taste cells,(More)
In the olfactory bulb (OB) of a transgenic mouse line that carries the bacterial LacZ gene under the control of the 5'-regulatory region of the GAD67 gene, expression of the beta-galactosidase was confined almost exclusively to the non-GABAergic mitral and tufted cells. By light microscopy, enzyme histochemistry showed strong staining in the cell bodies and(More)
Using a rat model of ischemic paraplegia, we examined the expression of spinal AMPA receptors and their role in mediating spasticity and rigidity. Spinal ischemia was induced by transient occlusion of the descending aorta combined with systemic hypotension. Spasticity/rigidity were identified by simultaneous measurements of peripheral muscle resistance(More)
Sublineage diversification of specific neural cell classes occurs in complex as well as simply organized regions of the central and peripheral nervous systems; the significance of the phenomenon, however, remains insufficiently understood. The unipolar brush cells (UBCs) are glutamatergic cerebellar interneurons that occur at high density in(More)