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The small vesicles shed from the surface of many cells upon stimulation, considered for a long time to be artefacts, are now recognized as specific structures that are distinct from the exosomes released upon exocytosis of multivesicular bodies. Recent reports indicate that shedding vesicles participate in important biological processes, such as the(More)
Cultured astrocytes exhibit a flat/epitelioid phenotype much different from the star-like phenotype of tissue astrocytes. Upon exposure to treatments that affect the small GTPase Rho and/or its effector ROCK, however, flat astrocytes undergo stellation, with restructuring of cytoskeleton and outgrowth of processes with lamellipodia, assuming a phenotype(More)
In order to clarify the role of cytosolic Ca2+ buffering, a property that in living cells is sustained primarily by high affinity binding proteins, in NMDA receptor-sustained neuron excitotoxicity, cultures of the neuroblastoma line CHP 100 (which is known to express the receptor) were loaded with the chelator BAPTA by incubation with various concentrations(More)
Neurosecretion competence is a fundamental property that enables differentiated neurones and professional neurosecretory cells to store neurotransmitters and hormones in specialized organelles, the synaptic-like vesicles and dense granules, and to release them by regulated exocytosis. In our laboratory, the study of rat phaeochromocytoma (PC12) clones that(More)
A stable clone of PC12 neuroendocrine cells, named 27, known from previous studies to exhibit a defect of regulated secretion (lack of regulated secretory proteins, of synaptophysin, of dense granules and of catecholamine uptake and release; Clementi, E., Racchetti, G., Zacchetti, D., Panzeri, M. C., and Meldolesi, J. (1992) Eur. J. Neurosci. 4, 944-953)(More)
Electrophysiological studies in some secretory and non-secretory cells have identified an extensive form of calcium-induced exocytosis that is rapid (hundreds of milliseconds), insensitive to tetanus toxin and distinct from regulated secretion. We have now identified a marker of the process, desmoyokin-AHNAK, in a clonal derivative of the neuronal cell(More)
Triggering receptor expressed in myeloid (TREM) cells 2, a receptor expressed by myeloid cells, osteoclasts and microglia, is known to play a protective role in bones and brain. Mutations of the receptor (or of its coupling protein, DAP12) sustain in fact a genetic disease affecting the two organs, the polycystic lipomembraneous osteodysplasia with(More)
Enlargeosomes are cytoplasmic organelles discharged by regulated exocytosis, identified by immunofluorescence of their membrane marker, desmoyokin/Ahnak, but never revealed at the ultrastructural level. Among the numerous enlargeosome-positive cells, the richest and most extensively characterized are those of a PC12 clone, PC12-27, defective of classical(More)
The expression of two cytosolic, high affinity Ca(2+)-binding proteins, calbindin-28 and calretinin, has been investigated in the cerebellum and hippocampus of young and old rats (from 12 days to 30 months) by combining immunofluorescence and Western blotting. Three markers, calreticulin (the major Ca2+ binding protein within the lumen of the endoplasmic(More)
Immunofluorescence and immunogold labeling, together with sucrose gradient separation and Western blot analysis of microsomal subfractions, were employed in parallel to probe the endoplasmic reticulum in the cell body and dendrites of rat cerebellar Purkinje neurons. Two markers, previously investigated in non-nerve cells, the membrane protein p91(More)