Learn More
Cultured astrocytes exhibit a flat/epitelioid phenotype much different from the star-like phenotype of tissue astrocytes. Upon exposure to treatments that affect the small GTPase Rho and/or its effector ROCK, however, flat astrocytes undergo stellation, with restructuring of cytoskeleton and outgrowth of processes with lamellipodia, assuming a phenotype(More)
In order to clarify the role of cytosolic Ca2+ buffering, a property that in living cells is sustained primarily by high affinity binding proteins, in NMDA receptor-sustained neuron excitotoxicity, cultures of the neuroblastoma line CHP 100 (which is known to express the receptor) were loaded with the chelator BAPTA by incubation with various concentrations(More)
Neurosecretion competence is a fundamental property that enables differentiated neurones and professional neurosecretory cells to store neurotransmitters and hormones in specialized organelles, the synaptic-like vesicles and dense granules, and to release them by regulated exocytosis. In our laboratory, the study of rat phaeochromocytoma (PC12) clones that(More)
Triggering receptor expressed in myeloid (TREM) cells 2, a receptor expressed by myeloid cells, osteoclasts and microglia, is known to play a protective role in bones and brain. Mutations of the receptor (or of its coupling protein, DAP12) sustain in fact a genetic disease affecting the two organs, the polycystic lipomembraneous osteodysplasia with(More)
The expression of two cytosolic, high affinity Ca(2+)-binding proteins, calbindin-28 and calretinin, has been investigated in the cerebellum and hippocampus of young and old rats (from 12 days to 30 months) by combining immunofluorescence and Western blotting. Three markers, calreticulin (the major Ca2+ binding protein within the lumen of the endoplasmic(More)
Immunofluorescence and immunogold labeling, together with sucrose gradient separation and Western blot analysis of microsomal subfractions, were employed in parallel to probe the endoplasmic reticulum in the cell body and dendrites of rat cerebellar Purkinje neurons. Two markers, previously investigated in non-nerve cells, the membrane protein p91(More)
In neurons and neurosecretory (nerve) cells, neurite outgrowth requires surface enlargement sustained by exocytosis of specific but poorly characterized vesicles. A canonical, relatively slow form of outgrowth is known to require the v-SNARE Ti-VAMP. Recently, we have identified a new, rapid form, triggered by activation of Rac1 and sustained by the(More)
Neurite outgrowth is known as a slow (days) process occurring in nerve cells and neurons during neurotrophin treatment and upon transfer to culture, respectively. Using Y27632, a drug that induces activation of Rac1, a downstream step of the neurotrophin signaling cascade, we have identified a new form of outgrowth, which is rapid (<1 hour) and extensive(More)
The mechanisms governing the fast, regulated exocytosis of enlargeosomes have been unknown, except for the participation of annexin-2 in a pre-fusion step. We investigated whether any SNAREs are involved. In PC12-27 cells, which are enlargeosome-rich, the expressed SNAREs exhibited various distributions (trans-Golgi network, scattered puncta, plasma(More)
Cultures of rat brain cortex astrocytes were exposed to 10(-10)-10(-9)M of the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein, gp120. No specific binding was revealed by the iodinated protein, suggesting expression of only a few sites onto the cells. In contrast, two transduction signals were rapidly induced by gp120: increased tyrosine phosphorylation of a approximately 56(More)