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In spite of several studies showing specific physiological functions of changes in the extracellular level of the major excitatory and inhibitory transmitters, Glu and GABA within the brain ([Glu](EXT), [GABA](EXT)) the exact origin (neuronal vs. astroglial, synaptic vs. extrasynaptic) of Glu and GABA present in dialysate samples is still a matter of(More)
Glutamate and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) transporters play important roles in balancing excitatory and inhibitory signals in the brain. Increasing evidence suggest that they may act concertedly to regulate extracellular levels of the neurotransmitters. Here we present evidence that glutamate uptake-induced release of GABA from astrocytes has a direct impact(More)
ATP and adenosine are well-known neuroactive compounds. Other nucleotides and nucleosides may also be involved in different brain functions. This paper reports on extracellular concentrations of nucleobases and nucleosides (uracil, hypoxanthine, xanthine, uridine, 2'-deoxycytidine, 2'-deoxyuridine, inosine, guanosine, thymidine, adenosine) in response to(More)
A single low dose of the neurotoxin: 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) results paradoxical sleep deprivation and reduction in food intake without any detectable motor deficiencies. In the present study we monitored the in vivo extracellular levels of monoamines and their metabolites following intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of a(More)
To determine whether EEG synchronization in sleep has a metabolic equivalent, we investigated state-dependent changes in extracellular concentrations of amino acids. In vivo microdialysis studies were performed in the ventroposterolateral (VPL) nuclei of the thalamus of cats during natural slow wave sleep (SWS), waking (W) and carbachol-induced paradoxical(More)
We have evaluated the effect of the brain penetrating GABAb antagonist, CGP 36742 on GABAb receptors using in vivo microdialysis in the ventrobasal thalamus of freely moving rat. When a solution of 1 mM CGP 36742 in ACSF was dialyzed into the ventrobasal thalamus, 2-3-fold increases of extracellular Glu, Asp and Gly running parallel with significant(More)
Cerebellar granule cells in culture express receptors for GABA belonging to the GABAA and GABAB classes. In order to characterize the ability of the insecticide lindane to interact with these receptors cells were grown in either plain culture media or media containing 150 μM THIP as this is known to influence the properties of both GABAA and GABAB(More)
In the present study, we compared in vivo changes of extracellular amino acid levels and nucleotide derivatives to a single ip dose of lindane (10-60 mg/kg) and picrotoxin (5 mg/kg) in the hippocampus of halothane anaesthetized rat by microdialysis-coupled HPLC analysis. Brain activity was monitored by EEG. The effects of lindane and picrotoxin on EEG(More)
Using the microdialysis technique and HPLC (high-performance liquid chromatography) determination of amino acids, the extracellular concentrations of gamma-aminobutyrate (GABA), glutamate, aspartate and a number of other amino acids were determined in rat thalamus during infusion through the microdialysis tubing of the GABA transport inhibitors(More)
The excitatory actions of the pyrimidine nucleoside uridine, and the nucleotides UDP and UTP, as well as the purine nucleotide ATP, were studied by fluorescent labeling of Ca2+ and K+ ion fluxes on the time scale of 0.04 ms to 10s in resealed plasmalemma fragments and nerve endings from the rat cerebral cortex. Two phases of Ca2+ ion influx with onsets of a(More)