Gabriella Aviello

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Infection of man with Schistosoma species of trematode parasite causes marked chronic morbidity. Individuals that become infected with Schistosomes may develop a spectrum of pathology ranging from mild cercarial dermatitis to severe tissue inflammation, in particular within the liver and intestines, which can lead to life threatening hepatosplenomegaly. It(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Salvinorin A, the active component of the hallucinogenic herb Salvia divinorum, inhibits intestinal motility through activation of kappa-opioid receptors (KORs). However, this compound may have target(s) other than the KORs in the inflamed gut. Because intestinal inflammation upregulates cannabinoid receptors and endogenous(More)
AIM Plant cannabinoids, like Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD), activate/desensitize thermosensitive transient receptor potential (TRP) channels of vanilloid type-1 or -2 (TRPV1 or TRPV2). We investigated whether cannabinoids also activate/desensitize two other 'thermo-TRP's', the TRP channels of vanilloid type-3 or -4 (TRPV3 or TRPV4),(More)
Gastric emptying regulates food intake. Oleoylethanolamide (OEA), an endogenous acylethanolamide chemically related to the endocannabinoid anandamide, inhibits food intake, but its effect on gastric emptying is unknown. Here, we investigated the effect and the role of OEA on gastric emptying in mice fed either a standard (STD) or a high-fat diet (HFD) for(More)
Inflammatory bowel disease affects millions of individuals; nevertheless, pharmacological treatment is disappointingly unsatisfactory. Cannabidiol, a safe and non-psychotropic ingredient of marijuana, exerts pharmacological effects (e.g., antioxidant) and mechanisms (e.g., inhibition of endocannabinoids enzymatic degradation) potentially beneficial for the(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Cannabidiol is a Cannabis-derived non-psychotropic compound that exerts a plethora of pharmacological actions, including anti-inflammatory, neuroprotective and antitumour effects, with potential therapeutic interest. However, the actions of cannabidiol in the digestive tract are largely unexplored. In the present study, we(More)
Mutations that result in loss of function of Nod2, an intracellular receptor for bacterial peptidoglycan, are associated with Crohn's disease. Here we found that the E3 ubiquitin ligase Pellino3 was an important mediator in the Nod2 signaling pathway. Pellino3-deficient mice had less induction of cytokines after engagement of Nod2 and had exacerbated(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Allyl isothiocyanate (AITC, mustard oil), a constituent of many common cruciferous vegetables (Brassicaceae), activates transient receptor potential of ankyrin type-1 (TRPA1) channels, claimed to regulate gastrointestinal contractility. In this study, we have investigated the effect of AITC on intestinal motility. EXPERIMENTAL(More)
OBJECTIVE Conventional antiemetics are burdened with the potential of teratogenic effects during the critical embryogenic period of pregnancy. Thus, a safe and effective medication would be a welcome addition to the therapeutic repertoire. This systematic review was aimed at assessing the evidence for or against the efficacy and safety of ginger (Zingiber(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Endocannabinoids in tissues controlling energy homeostasis are altered in obesity, thus contributing to metabolic disorders. Here we evaluate endocannabinoid dysregulation in the small intestine of mice with diet-induced obesity (DIO) and in peripheral tissues of Zucker and lean rats following food deprivation and re-feeding. (More)