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The plant Cannabis has been known for centuries to be beneficial in a variety of gastrointestinal diseases, including emesis, diarrhea, inflammatory bowel disease and intestinal pain. delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol, the main psychotropic component of Cannabis, acts via at least two types of cannabinoid receptors, named CB1 and CB2 receptors. CB1 receptors are(More)
Colorectal cancer is an increasingly important cause of death in Western countries. Endocannabinoids inhibit colorectal carcinoma cell proliferation in vitro. In this paper, we investigated the involvement of endocannabinoids on the formation of aberrant crypt foci (ACF, earliest preneoplastic lesions) in the colon mouse in vivo. ACF were induced by(More)
In recent years, the use of anthraquinone laxatives, in particular senna, has been associated with damage to the intestinal epithelial layer and an increased risk of developing colorectal cancer. In this study, we evaluated the cytotoxicity of rhein, the active metabolite of senna, on human colon adenocarcinoma cells (Caco-2) and its effect on cell(More)
Activation of the noncanonical inflammasome, mediated by caspase-11, serves as an additional pathway for the production of the proinflammatory cytokines IL-1β and IL-18. Noncanonical inflammasome activity occurs during host defense against Gram-negative bacteria and in models of acute septic shock. We propose that the noncanonical inflammasome is activated(More)
Colon cancer affects millions of individuals in Western countries. Cannabidiol, a safe and non-psychotropic ingredient of Cannabis sativa, exerts pharmacological actions (antioxidant and intestinal antinflammatory) and mechanisms (inhibition of endocannabinoid enzymatic degradation) potentially beneficial for colon carcinogenesis. Thus, we investigated its(More)
Infection of man with Schistosoma species of trematode parasite causes marked chronic morbidity. Individuals that become infected with Schistosomes may develop a spectrum of pathology ranging from mild cercarial dermatitis to severe tissue inflammation, in particular within the liver and intestines, which can lead to life threatening hepatosplenomegaly. It(More)
BACKGROUND Salvinorin A (SA), the main active component of Salvia Divinorum, is a non-nitrogenous kappa opioid receptor (KOR) agonist. It has been shown to reduce acute pain and to exert potent antinflammatory effects. This study assesses the effects and the mode of action of SA on formalin-induced persistent pain in mice. Specifically, the SA effects on(More)
The hallucinogenic plant Salvia divinorum has been used for medical treatments of gastrointestinal disorders. Here, we evaluated the effect of a standardized extract from the leaves of Salvia divinorum (SDE) and of its active ingredient salvinorin A on motility in vivo, both in physiological states and during croton oil-induced intestinal inflammation. SDE(More)
BACKGROUND AND AIMS Free radicals are implicated in the aetiology of some gastrointestinal disorders such as gastric ulcer, colorectal cancer and inflammatory bowel disease. In the present study we investigated the antioxidant and genoprotective activity of some rotenoids (i.e. boeravinones) isolated from the roots of Boerhaavia diffusa, a plant used in the(More)
OBJECTIVE Bile acids are important regulators of intestinal physiology, and the nuclear bile acid receptor, farnesoid X receptor (FXR), is emerging as a promising therapeutic target for several intestinal disorders. Here, we investigated a role for FXR in regulating intestinal fluid and electrolyte transport and the potential for FXR agonists in treating(More)