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A major challenge of computational protein design is the creation of novel proteins with arbitrarily chosen three-dimensional structures. Here, we used a general computational strategy that iterates between sequence design and structure prediction to design a 93-residue alpha/beta protein called Top7 with a novel sequence and topology. Top7 was found(More)
The double-stranded RNA-binding domain (dsRBD) is a common RNA-binding motif found in many proteins involved in RNA maturation and localization. To determine how this domain recognizes RNA, we have studied the third dsRBD from Drosophila Staufen. The domain binds optimally to RNA stem-loops containing 12 uninterrupted base pairs, and we have identified the(More)
The solution structure of a 27-nucleotide duplex, including the internal loop E from Xenopus laevis 5S ribosomal RNA, has been studied by two-dimensional NMR spectroscopy, followed by restrained molecular dynamics. The highly conserved internal loop closes to form a G.A base pair and a reverse-Hoogsteen A.U base pair. Extensive interstrand stacking between(More)
One of the first steps in HIV gene expression is the recruitment of Tat protein to the transcription machinery after its binding to the RNA response element TAR. Starting from a pool of 3.2 x 10(6) individual chemical entities, we were able to select a hybrid peptoid/peptide oligomer of 9 residues (CGP64222) that was able to block the formation of the(More)
The ribonucleoprotein (RNP) domain is one of the most common eukaryotic protein folds. Proteins containing RNP domains function in important steps of posttranscriptional regulation of gene expression by directing the assembly of multiprotein complexes on primary transcripts, mature mRNAs, and stable ribonucleoprotein components of the RNA processing(More)
Many proteins involved in pre-mRNA processing contain one or more copies of a 70-90-amino-acid alphabeta module called the ribonucleoprotein domain. RNA maturation depends on the specific recognition by ribonucleoproteins of RNA elements within pre-mRNAs and small nuclear RNAs. The human U1A protein binds an RNA hairpin during splicing, and regulates its(More)
The CCA-adding enzyme adds CCA to the 3'-end of tRNA one nucleotide at a time, using CTP and ATP as substrates. We found previously that tRNA does not rotate or translocate on the enzyme during the addition of C75 and A76. We therefore predicted that the growing 3'-end of tRNA must, upon addition of each nucleotide, refold to reposition the new 3'-hydroxyl(More)
Many RNA-binding proteins have modular structures and are composed of multiple repeats of just a few basic domains that are arranged in various ways to satisfy their diverse functional requirements. Recent studies have investigated how different modules cooperate in regulating the RNA-binding specificity and the biological activity of these proteins. They(More)
The hepatitis C virus (HCV) internal ribosome entry site (IRES) is recognized specifically by the small ribosomal subunit and eukaryotic initiation factor 3 (eIF3) before viral translation initiation. Using extensive mutagenesis and structure probing analysis, we show that the eIF3-binding domain of the HCV IRES contains an internal loop structure (loop(More)
The G x U wobble base pair is a fundamental unit of RNA secondary structure that is present in nearly every class of RNA from organisms of all three phylogenetic domains. It has comparable thermodynamic stability to Watson-Crick base pairs and is nearly isomorphic to them. Therefore, it often substitutes for G x C or A x U base pairs. The G x U wobble base(More)