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Extracellular hemoglobin (Hb) has been recognized as a disease trigger in hemolytic conditions such as sickle cell disease, malaria, and blood transfusion. In vivo, many of the adverse effects of free Hb can be attenuated by the Hb scavenger acute-phase protein haptoglobin (Hp). The primary physiologic disturbances that can be caused by free Hb are found(More)
Glucocorticoids are used extensively to treat autoimmune hemolytic anemias. Some beneficial effects of glucocorticoid pulse therapy have also been reported in sickle cell disease and paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria. Based on established concepts of hemoglobin (Hb) toxicity and physiologic Hb scavenger systems, we evaluated whether glucocorticoids could(More)
Listeria monocytogenes is widely used as a model to study immune responses against intracellular bacteria. It has been shown that neutrophils and macrophages play an important role to restrict bacterial replication in the early phase of primary infection in mice, and that the cytokines interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha)(More)
OBJECTIVE Sepsis is a major cause of death for intensive care patients. High concentrations of inflammatory cytokines are characteristic of severe systemic inflammation and activated monocytes are their predominant cellular source. To identify targets for antiinflammatory intervention, we investigated the response of human macrophages to inflammatory and(More)
Detoxification and clearance of extracellular hemoglobin (Hb) have been attributed to its removal by the CD163 scavenger receptor pathway. However, even low-level hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) exposure irreversibly modifies Hb and severely impairs Hb endocytosis by CD163. We show here that when Hb is bound to the high-affinity Hb scavenger protein(More)
BACKGROUND During systemic inflammation, activation of vascular endothelium by proinflammatory cytokines leads to hypotension, microvascular thrombosis, and organ damage. Recent data suggest a link between coagulation and inflammation through the activated protein C (APC) pathway. We studied gene expression profiles in human coronary artery endothelial(More)
OBJECTIVES Uncontrolled macrophage activation with hemophagocytosis is a distinctive feature of hemophagocytic syndromes (HPS). We examined whether lympho-histiocytic infiltration of the bone marrow and liver, as well as hemo-/erythrophagocytosis also occurs during sepsis and whether this process could account for the increased production of(More)
BACKGROUND The nitric oxide synthase cofactor tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) is involved in the regulation of endothelium-dependent vascular functions mediated by nitric oxide. Vascular endothelial cells synthesize and secrete large amounts of BH4 on cytokine activation. There is scant knowledge about molecular mechanisms of cytokine-triggered BH4 production in(More)
BACKGROUND Previous studies have provided evidence for the importance of platelet-derived nitric oxide (NO) for the regulation of hemostasis. Tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) is an essential cofactor and regulator of NO synthase activity in the vasculature; however, it is as yet unknown whether platelets dispose over a functional BH4 synthesis. METHODS AND(More)
The anticonidial activity of human monocytes deactivated by cytokines interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-10 and the hormone dexamethasone was studied and compared with antilisterial activity. Dexamethasone had the largest effect on the anticonidial activity and suppressed germination-inhibiting activity and elimination of ingested spores by macrophages more than the(More)