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The sexual phase of the malaria pathogen, Plasmodium falciparum, culminates in fertilization within the midgut of the mosquito and represents a crucial step in the completion of the parasite's life-cycle and transmission of the disease. Two decades ago, the first sexual stage-specific surface proteins were identified, among them Pfs230, Pfs48/45, and Pfs25,(More)
Malaria sporozoites have to cross the layer of sinusoidal liver cells to reach their initial site of multiplication in the mammalian host, the hepatocytes. To determine the sinusoidal cell type sporozoites use for extravasation, endothelia or Kupffer cells, we quantified sporozoite adhesion to and invasion of sinusoidal cells isolated from rat liver. In(More)
Intracellular bacteria and parasites typically invade host cells through the formation of an internalization vacuole around the invading pathogen. Plasmodium sporozoites, the infective stage of the malaria parasite transmitted by mosquitoes, have an alternative mechanism to enter cells. We observed breaching of the plasma membrane of the host cell followed(More)
The recent sequencing of several apicomplexan genomes has provided the opportunity to characterize novel antigens essential for the parasite life cycle that might lead to the development of new diagnostic and therapeutic markers. Here we have screened the Plasmodium falciparum genome sequence for genes encoding extracellular multidomain putative adhesive(More)
In Plasmodium falciparum, a family of six secreted proteins having a conserved architecture of multiple adhesive domains was recently identified by genome annotation. Three of the proteins, termed PfCCp1, PfCCp2, and PfCCp3 due to a common LCCL domain, are expressed inside the gametocyte parasitophorous vacuole and released during gamete emergence, where(More)
Plasmodium sporozoites collected from oocysts, haemocoel and salivary glands of the mosquito show profound differences in their biological properties such as motility, ability to induce protective immune response and infectivity for vertebrate host cells. Sporozoites from salivary glands are much more infectious than those from oocysts and haemocoel.(More)
For more than 50 years dequalinium chloride has been used successfully as an antiseptic drug and disinfectant, particularly for clinical purposes. Given the success of dequalinium chloride, several series of mono- and bisquaternary ammonium compounds have been designed and reported to have improved antimicrobial activity. Furthermore, many of them exhibit(More)
Human complement is a first line defense against infection in which circulating proteins initiate an enzyme cascade on the microbial surface that leads to phagocytosis and lysis. Various pathogens evade complement recognition by binding to regulator proteins that protect host cells from complement activation. We show that emerging gametes of the malaria(More)
To date, the circumsporozoite (CS) protein has been implicated in guiding malaria sporozoites to the liver [Cerami et al., Cell 70, 1992, 1021-1033]. Here we show that shortly after invasion, P. berghei and P. yoelii sporozoites lie free in the invaded cell and release considerable amounts of CS protein into the cytoplasm. The intracytoplasmic deposition of(More)