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Neuropsychiatric symptoms like mood changes and depression are common in patients with chronic inflammatory disorders such as infections, autoimmune diseases or cancer. The pathogenesis of these symptoms is still unclear. Pro-inflammatory stimuli interfere not only with the neural circuits and neurotransmitters of the serotonergic, but also with those of(More)
Activation of indoleamine-(2,3)-dioxygenase (IDO), an enzyme converting tryptophan to N-formyl-kynurenine, was found to be critical for induction of T-cell tolerance. In 45 HIV-seropositive patients we measured plasma tryptophan and kynurenine before and 6 months post-initiation of ART. Before ART, patients had decreased tryptophan and increased kynurenine(More)
Increased blood concentrations of phenylalanine in patients with trauma and sepsis are common but unexplained. We examined the potential relationship between serum concentrations of phenylalanine and the immune activation marker neopterin in 84 specimens of 18 patients (14 males and 4 females) post-trauma during 12-14 days of follow up. Compared to healthy(More)
BACKGROUND Inflammation and immune activation appear to be important in the pathogenesis of coronary heart disease (CHD). Cytokine interferon-gamma, which is released during cell-mediated immune responses, induces indoleamine (2,3)-dioxygenase (IDO), an enzyme degrading tryptophan to kynurenine. Therefore, immune stimulation is commonly associated with an(More)
The deficit of these factors may cause excess hydroxyl-radical generation, leading to molecular and tissue damage. VE deficiency may affect nervous tissue in other ways, including overproduction of cytolytic phos-pholipids (22) and disturbance of brain monoamine metabolism (23). Other roles of VE, such as modulation of necrosis ␬B and AP1 transcription(More)
In mice, activation of indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenase (IDO), an enzyme converting tryptophan to N-formyl-kynurenine, was found to be necessary requirement to achieve immunotolerance against the fetus and thus uncomplicated pregnancy. In plasma from 20 healthy pregnant women with singleton pregnancies we consecutively analyzed kynurenine and tryptophan(More)
Increased blood concentrations of essential amino acid phenylalanine are common in patients with HIV infection, in trauma and sepsis and in patients with cancer. The reason for this phenomenon is still unclear. However, all these clinical conditions are known to be linked with inflammation and immune activation. Oxidative stress resulting from chronic(More)
OBJECTIVES Aging is associated with an increased frequency of abnormal immune system function, which may cause infections, autoimmune diseases, and cardiovascular or neurodegenerative disorders. Th1-type cytokine interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) induces neopterin production as well as tryptophan degradation via indoleamine (2,3)-dioxygenase (IDO), and(More)
BACKGROUND Tryptophan (TRP) degradation into kynurenine (KYN) by the enzyme, indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenase, during immune activation may contribute to development of depressive symptoms during interferon (IFN)-alpha therapy. METHODS Twenty-six patients with malignant melanoma were randomly assigned in double-blind fashion to receive either placebo or(More)
BACKGROUND Determination of plasma homocysteine has gained increasing interest during the past few years. Several HPLC methods for determination of homocysteine are available. Based on these methods, we developed a new HPLC assay for rapid and sensitive measurement of total plasma homocysteine. METHODS As a reducing reagent(More)