Gabriele Neurauter

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Tryptophan is an essential amino acid and the least abundant constituent of proteins. In parallel it represents a source for two important biochemical pathways: the generation of neurotransmitter 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin) by the tetrahydrobiopterin-dependent tryptophan 5-hydroxylase, and the formation of kynurenine derivatives and nicotinamide adenine(More)
Activation of indoleamine-(2,3)-dioxygenase (IDO), an enzyme converting tryptophan to N-formyl-kynurenine, was found to be critical for induction of T-cell tolerance. In 45 HIV-seropositive patients we measured plasma tryptophan and kynurenine before and 6 months post-initiation of ART. Before ART, patients had decreased tryptophan and increased kynurenine(More)
BACKGROUND Tryptophan (TRP) degradation into kynurenine (KYN) by the enzyme, indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenase, during immune activation may contribute to development of depressive symptoms during interferon (IFN)-alpha therapy. METHODS Twenty-six patients with malignant melanoma were randomly assigned in double-blind fashion to receive either placebo or(More)
Neuropsychiatric symptoms like mood changes and depression are common in patients with chronic inflammatory disorders such as infections, autoimmune diseases or cancer. The pathogenesis of these symptoms is still unclear. Pro-inflammatory stimuli interfere not only with the neural circuits and neurotransmitters of the serotonergic, but also with those of(More)
Inhibitors of 3-hydroxy-3methylglutaryl-co-enzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase, so-called statins, are used in medical practice because of their lipid-lowering effect and to reduce the risk of coronary heart disease. Recent findings indicate that statins also have anti-inflammatory properties and can modulate the immune response. In vitro, we investigated the(More)
hydroxyl-radical generation, leading to molecular and tissue damage. VE deficiency may affect nervous tissue in other ways, including overproduction of cytolytic phospholipids (22 ) and disturbance of brain monoamine metabolism (23 ). Other roles of VE, such as modulation of necrosis B and AP1 transcription factors and protein kinase C (24 ), are probably(More)
BACKGROUND Inflammation and immune activation appear to be important in the pathogenesis of coronary heart disease (CHD). Cytokine interferon-gamma, which is released during cell-mediated immune responses, induces indoleamine (2,3)-dioxygenase (IDO), an enzyme degrading tryptophan to kynurenine. Therefore, immune stimulation is commonly associated with an(More)
BACKGROUND Determination of plasma homocysteine has gained increasing interest during the past few years. Several HPLC methods for determination of homocysteine are available. Based on these methods, we developed a new HPLC assay for rapid and sensitive measurement of total plasma homocysteine. METHODS As a reducing reagent(More)
Decreased lymphocyte proliferation, lymphopenia, immunodepression, and opportunistic infections are common after major trauma. Early alimentation in these patients corrects lymphopenia, enhances immunity, and reduces the incidence of infections, but the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Tryptophan is essential for the production and function of(More)
Immune dysfunction in trauma patients is associated with immune system activation and inflammation. The cytokine-inducible enzyme IDO (indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase) initiates the degradation of the essential aromatic amino acid tryptophan via the kynurenine pathway and could contribute to deficient immune responsiveness. Activated IDO is indicated by an(More)