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BACKGROUND Inflammation and immune activation appear to be important in the pathogenesis of coronary heart disease (CHD). Cytokine interferon-gamma, which is released during cell-mediated immune responses, induces indoleamine (2,3)-dioxygenase (IDO), an enzyme degrading tryptophan to kynurenine. Therefore, immune stimulation is commonly associated with an(More)
Neuropsychiatric symptoms like mood changes and depression are common in patients with chronic inflammatory disorders such as infections, autoimmune diseases or cancer. The pathogenesis of these symptoms is still unclear. Pro-inflammatory stimuli interfere not only with the neural circuits and neurotransmitters of the serotonergic, but also with those of(More)
Increased blood concentrations of phenylalanine in patients with trauma and sepsis are common but unexplained. We examined the potential relationship between serum concentrations of phenylalanine and the immune activation marker neopterin in 84 specimens of 18 patients (14 males and 4 females) post-trauma during 12–14 days of follow up. Compared to healthy(More)
In mice, activation of indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenase (IDO), an enzyme converting tryptophan to N-formyl-kynurenine, was found to be necessary requirement to achieve immunotolerance against the fetus and thus uncomplicated pregnancy. In plasma from 20 healthy pregnant women with singleton pregnancies we consecutively analyzed kynurenine and tryptophan(More)
Activation of indoleamine-(2,3)-dioxygenase (IDO), an enzyme converting tryptophan to N-formyl-kynurenine, was found to be critical for induction of T-cell tolerance. In 45 HIV-seropositive patients we measured plasma tryptophan and kynurenine before and 6 months post-initiation of ART. Before ART, patients had decreased tryptophan and increased kynurenine(More)
Tryptophan is an essential amino acid and the least abundant constituent of proteins. In parallel it represents a source for two important biochemical pathways: the generation of neurotransmitter 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin) by the tetrahydrobiopterin-dependent tryptophan 5-hydroxylase, and the formation of kynurenine derivatives and nicotinamide adenine(More)
The deficit of these factors may cause excess hydroxyl-radical generation, leading to molecular and tissue damage. VE deficiency may affect nervous tissue in other ways, including overproduction of cytolytic phos-pholipids (22) and disturbance of brain monoamine metabolism (23). Other roles of VE, such as modulation of necrosis ␬B and AP1 transcription(More)
BACKGROUND Determination of plasma homocysteine has gained increasing interest during the past few years. Several HPLC methods for determination of homocysteine are available. Based on these methods, we developed a new HPLC assay for rapid and sensitive measurement of total plasma homocysteine. METHODS As a reducing reagent(More)
Inhibitors of 3-hydroxy-3methylglutaryl-co-enzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase, so-called statins, are used in medical practice because of their lipid-lowering effect and to reduce the risk of coronary heart disease. Recent findings indicate that statins also have anti-inflammatory properties and can modulate the immune response. In vitro, we investigated the(More)
Increased blood concentrations of essential amino acid phenylalanine are common in patients with HIV infection, in trauma and sepsis and in patients with cancer. The reason for this phenomenon is still unclear. However, all these clinical conditions are known to be linked with inflammation and immune activation. Oxidative stress resulting from chronic(More)