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If the pace of increase in life expectancy in developed countries over the past two centuries continues through the 21st century, most babies born since 2000 in France, Germany, Italy, the UK, the USA, Canada, Japan, and other countries with long life expectancies will celebrate their 100th birthdays. Although trends differ between countries, populations of(More)
Does a woman's reproductive history influence her life span? This study explores the question with data from the contemporary female populations of England and Wales and Austria. It is the first comparative study to investigate the relationship between fertility and mortality late in life. We find similar patterns and age-specific trends of excess mortality(More)
Month of birth influences adult life expectancy at ages 50+. Why? In two countries of the Northern Hemisphere-Austria and Denmark-people born in autumn (October-December) live longer than those born in spring (April-June). Data for Australia show that, in the Southern Hemisphere, the pattern is shifted by half a year. The lifespan pattern of British(More)
So far all calculations of the number of demented people are based on rates from meta-analyses, mean rates of meta-analyses or spatial analyses. This article presents age- and gender-specific prevalence and incidence rates of dementia that are based on a large sample of the German Sick Funds (Stichprobendaten von Versicherten der gesetzlichen(More)
Whether a cost of reproduction exists among humans is still questionable. A major study of aristocratic British families finds a significant positive correlation between parity and late-life mortality, which indicates a trade-off between reproduction and longevity. This result is supported by four other studies, while earlier studies have not found a(More)
We analyze causal effects of conditions early in life on the individual mortality rate later in life. Conditions early in life are captured by transitory features of the macro-environment around birth, notably the state of the business cycle around birth, but also food price deviations, weather indicators, and demographic indicators. We argue that these(More)
Using data from Germany, we examine if month of birth influences survival up to age 105. Since age reporting at the highest ages is notoriously unreliable we draw on age-validated information from a huge age validation project of 1487 alleged German semi-supercentenarians aged 105+. We use month of birth as an exogenous indicator for seasonal changes in the(More)
Comparative international studies regularly find an increase in mortality differentials by education and socioeconomic group. We are interested in whether the same is true for Austria, a country for which no previous comparable study exists. On the basis of linked death and census records for the Austrian population in the years 1981/82 and 1991/92, we(More)
OBJECTIVE Peroxisome proliferator activated receptor γ-activating drugs show various salutary effects in preclinical models of neurodegenerative disease. The decade-long clinical usage of these drugs as antidiabetics now allows for evaluation of patient-oriented data sources. METHODS Using observational data from 2004-2010, we analyzed the association of(More)