Gabriele A. Macho

Learn More
This paper explores the potential of high-resolution computed tomography (CT) as a morphometric tool in paleoanthropology. The accuracy of linear measurements of enamel thickness and cortical bone thickness taken from CT scans is evaluated by making comparison with measurements taken directly from physical sections. The measurements of cortical bone are(More)
There has been disagreement about whether the earliest hominids grew in a similar manner to great apes or modern humans. This has important biological implications, since it may have been inappropriate to apply modern human developmental standards to early hominids. The aim of the present study was to combine data from replicas of tooth surfaces, computed(More)
In a previous study, we found systematic differences in the biomechanical behavior of modern human molars using finite element stress analyses (FESA), which led us to propose that molars are adapted to differently-directed loads depending on their position within the mouth (Spears and Macho [1998] Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 106:467-482). While the FESA results(More)
Although African great apes share a similar quadrupedal locomotor behaviour, there are marked differences in hand morphology and size between the species. Hence, whilst all three species (two genera) of African ape frequently knuckle walk as adults, debate remains as to whether this behaviour is derived from a common ancestor or whether it evolved in(More)
Comparative studies have convincingly demonstrated that the pattern and timing of tooth emergence are highly correlated with life-history variables and brain size. Conversely, a firm relationship between molar formation time and life-history variables has not yet been established. It seems counterintuitive that one aspect of dental development should be(More)
Trabeculae form the internal bony mesh work and provide strength to the bone; interconnectivity, overall density, and trabecular thickness are important measures of the integrity of the internal architecture. Such strength is achieved only gradually during ontogeny, whereby an increase in trabecular thickness precedes an increase in mineralization. Loss of(More)
Forty-four modern human maxillary molars (M1 = 21, M2 = 12, and M3 = 11) were sectioned through the mesial cusps in a plane perpendicular to the cervical margin of the crown. Eight measurements of enamel thickness as well as bucco-lingual (BL) and mesio-distal (MD) diameters were recorded for each tooth in order to investigate differences in these(More)
In the present study 38 unworn maxillary molars (M1 = 16, M2 = 12, M3 = 10) of modern humans from a Slavic necropolis were sectioned through the mesial cusps in a plane perpendicular to the cervical margin of the crown. Five slightly worn M1s and one slightly worn M3 were also used thus increasing the total sample to 44, but measurements made on the worn(More)
Finite-element models of 29 intact molars were created and subjected to cleavage-type loads in order to assess differences in the biomechanical behaviour of molars. A simulated food particle, which was one-third the size of the intercuspal distance and had the properties of a Mezzettia seed, was pushed onto the occlusal basin of these models at various(More)
Factors influencing the hominoid life histories are poorly understood, and little is known about how ecological conditions modulate the pace of their development. Yet our limited understanding of these interactions underpins life history interpretations in extinct hominins. Here we determined the synchronisation of dental mineralization/eruption with brain(More)