Gabriele A. Landolt

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In 1997 and 1998, H3N2 influenza A viruses emerged among pigs in North America. Genetic analyses of the H3N2 isolates demonstrated that they had distinctly different genotypes. The most commonly isolated viruses in the United States have a triple-reassortant genotype, with the hemagglutinin, neuraminidase, and PB1 polymerase genes being of human influenza(More)
Influenza A viruses pose significant health and economic threats to humans and animals. Outbreaks of avian influenza virus (AIV) are a liability to the poultry industry and increase the risk for transmission to humans. There are limitations to using the AIV vaccine in poultry, creating barriers to controlling outbreaks and a need for alternative effective(More)
With the widespread use of a recently developed canine influenza virus (CIV) H3N8 vaccine, continual molecular evaluation of circulating CIVs is necessary for monitoring antigenic drift. The aim of this project was to further describe the genetic evolution of CIV, as well as determine any genetic variation within potential antigenic regions that might(More)
In the late 1990s, triple reassortant H3N2 influenza A viruses emerged and spread widely within the swine population of the United States. We have shown previously that an isolate representative of this lineage of viruses, A/Swine/Minnesota/593/99 (Sw/MN), has higher infectivity and accelerated replication kinetics in pigs, compared to a human-lineage H3N2(More)
Our understanding of innate immunity within the equine respiratory tract is limited despite growing evidence for its key role in both the immediate defense and the shaping of downstream adaptive immune responses to respiratory disease. As the first interface to undergo pathogen invasion, the respiratory epithelium is a key player in these early events and(More)
Influenza is a highly contagious disease that has burdened both humans and animals since ancient times. In humans, the most dramatic consequences of influenza are associated with periodically occurring pandemics. Pandemics require the emergence of an antigenically novel virus to which the majority of the population lacks protective immunity. Historically,(More)
For decades the horse has been viewed as an isolated or "dead-end" host for influenza A viruses, with equine influenza virus being considered as relatively stable genetically. Although equine influenza viruses are genetically more stable than those of human lineage, they are by no means in evolutionary stasis. Moreover, recent transmission of equine-lineage(More)
Sustained transmission of canine Influenza A virus (CIV) H3N8 among U.S. dogs underscores the threat influenza continues to pose to canine health. Because rapid and accurate detection of infection is critical to the diagnosis and control of CIV, the 2 main objectives of the current study were to estimate and compare the sensitivities of CIV testing methods(More)
Equine influenza virus remains an important problem in horses despite extensive use of vaccination. Efficacy of equine influenza vaccination depends on the onset and duration of protective immunity, and appropriate strain specificity of the immune response. This study was designed to test the protective immunity resulting from vaccination with the North(More)
OBJECTIVE To evaluate sensitivity and specificity of a real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay performed on pooled nasal swab specimens, compared with virus isolation performed on individual nasal swab specimens by use of 2 cell culture lines for detection of swine influenza A viruses. SAMPLE POPULATION 900 nasal swab(More)