Gabriele A. Landolt

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In 1997 and 1998, H3N2 influenza A viruses emerged among pigs in North America. Genetic analyses of the H3N2 isolates demonstrated that they had distinctly different genotypes. The most commonly isolated viruses in the United States have a triple-reassortant genotype, with the hemagglutinin, neuraminidase, and PB1 polymerase genes being of human influenza(More)
Infection of dogs with canine influenza virus (CIV) is considered widespread throughout the United States following the first isolation of CIV in 2004. While vaccination against influenza A infection is a common and important practice for disease control, antiviral therapy can serve as a valuable adjunct in controlling the impact of the disease. In this(More)
Influenza A viruses pose significant health and economic threats to humans and animals. Outbreaks of avian influenza virus (AIV) are a liability to the poultry industry and increase the risk for transmission to humans. There are limitations to using the AIV vaccine in poultry, creating barriers to controlling outbreaks and a need for alternative effective(More)
With the widespread use of a recently developed canine influenza virus (CIV) H3N8 vaccine, continual molecular evaluation of circulating CIVs is necessary for monitoring antigenic drift. The aim of this project was to further describe the genetic evolution of CIV, as well as determine any genetic variation within potential antigenic regions that might(More)
Phylogenetic analyses indicate that canine influenza viruses (CIVs) (H3N8) evolved from contemporary equine influenza virus (EIV). Despite the genetic relatedness of EIV and CIV, recent evidence suggests that CIV is unable to infect, replicate, and spread among susceptible horses. To determine whether equine H3N8 viruses have equally lost the ability to(More)
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