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The use of particulate carriers holds great promise for the development of effective and affordable recombinant vaccines. Rational development requires a detailed understanding of particle up-take and processing mechanisms to target cellular pathways capable of stimulating the required immune responses safely. These mechanisms are in turn based on how the(More)
The cooperative nature of tetraspanin-tetraspanin interactions in membrane organization suggests functional overlap is likely to be important in tetraspanin biology. Previous functional studies of the tetraspanins CD37 and Tssc6 in the immune system found that both CD37 and Tssc6 regulate T cell proliferative responses in vitro. CD37(-/-) mice also(More)
Recent years have seen a resurgence in interest in the development of efficient non-viral delivery systems for DNA vaccines and gene therapy. We have previously used oxidized and reduced mannan as carriers for protein delivery to antigen-presenting cells by targeting the receptors that bind mannose, resulting in efficient induction of cellular responses. In(More)
Severe Plasmodium falciparum malaria is a major cause of global mortality, yet the immunological factors underlying progression to severe disease remain unclear. CD4(+)CD25(+) regulatory T cells (Treg cells) are associated with impaired T cell control of Plasmodium spp infection. We investigated the relationship between Treg cells, parasite biomass, and P.(More)
A system for experimentally induced blood stage malaria infection (IBSM) with Plasmodium falciparum by direct intravenous inoculation of infected erythrocytes was developed at the Queensland Institute of Medical Research (QIMR) more than 15 years ago. Since that time, this system has been used in several studies to investigate the protective effect of(More)
Infection with Plasmodium parasites can cause severe disease due to a lack of protective immune responses to clear parasitemia, or to the host's inability to control excessive inflammation resulting in immunopathology. T regulatory cells (Tregs), key mediators of immune homeostasis, are increased in number and modulate disease in human and murine malaria.(More)
BACKGROUND Merozoite surface protein (MSP) 5 is a candidate antigen for a malaria vaccine. In cross-sectional and longitudinal studies, we measured MSP5 antibody responses in Papuans with acute Plasmodium falciparum malaria, Plasmodium vivax malaria, and mixed P. falciparum and P. vivax malaria and in those with past exposure. METHODS Enzyme-linked(More)
In mice, defense against an intraperitoneal Salmonella infection depends on a vigorous innate immune response. Mutations which lead to an inadequate early response to the pathogen thus identify genes involved in innate immunity. The best studied host resistance factor, NRAMP-1, is an endosomal membrane protein whose loss leads to an inability of the animals(More)
INTRODUCTION Impaired T cell function in sepsis is associated with poor outcome, but the mechanisms are unclear. In cancer, arginase-expressing myeloid derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) deplete arginine, impair T cell receptor CD3 zeta-chain expression and T cell function and are linked to poor clinical outcome, but their role during acute human infectious(More)
DNA formulations provide the basis for safe and cost efficient vaccines. However, naked plasmid DNA is only poorly immunogenic and new effective delivery strategies are needed to enhance the potency of DNA vaccines. In this study, we present a novel approach for the delivery of DNA vaccines using inert poly-L-lysine (PLL) coated polystyrene particles, which(More)