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Ecosystem respiration is the biotic conversion of organic carbon to carbon dioxide by all of the organisms in an ecosystem, including both consumers and primary producers. Respiration exhibits an exponential temperature dependence at the subcellular and individual levels, but at the ecosystem level respiration can be modified by many variables including(More)
The significance of freshwaters as key players in the global budget of both carbon dioxide and methane has recently been highlighted. In particular, rivers clearly do not act simply as inert conduits merely piping carbon from catchment to coast, but, on the whole, their metabolic activity transforms a considerable fraction of the carbon that they convey. In(More)
The carbon cycle modulates climate change, via the regulation of atmospheric CO(2), and it represents one of the most important services provided by ecosystems. However, considerable uncertainties remain concerning potential feedback between the biota and the climate. In particular, it is unclear how global warming will affect the metabolic balance between(More)
Methane (CH4) is an important greenhouse gas because it has 25 times the global warming potential of carbon dioxide (CO2) by mass over a century. Recent calculations suggest that atmospheric CH4 emissions have been responsible for approximately 20% of Earth's warming since pre-industrial times. Understanding how CH4 emissions from ecosystems will respond to(More)
Understanding how biogeochemical cycles relate to the structure of ecological communities is a central research question in ecology. Here we approach this problem by focusing on body size, which is an easily measured species trait that has a pervasive influence on multiple aspects of community structure and ecosystem functioning. We test the predictions of(More)
Global warming can affect all levels of biological complexity, though we currently understand least about its potential impact on communities and ecosystems. At the ecosystem level, warming has the capacity to alter the structure of communities and the rates of key ecosystem processes they mediate. Here we assessed the effects of a 4°C rise in temperature(More)
Temperature is a key driver of ecological processes and patterns. The ramifications of temperature for ecological communities include not only its direct effects on the physiology of individuals, but also how these effects play out in the context of other processes such as competition. Apparently idiosyncratic or difficult to predict effects of temperature(More)
Riverine habitats are vulnerable to a host of environmental stressors, many of which are increasing in frequency and intensity across the globe. Climate change is arguably the greatest threat on the horizon, with serious implications for freshwater food webs via alterations in thermal regimes, resource quality and availability, and hydrology. This will(More)
The integration of detailed information on feeding interactions with measures of abundance and body mass of individuals provides a powerful platform for understanding ecosystem organisation. Metabolism and, by proxy, body mass constrain the flux, turnover and storage of energy and biomass in food webs. Here, we present the first food web data for Lough(More)
Is it possible to untangle the 'entangled bank'--Darwin's metaphor for the complexity and connectedness of species in the natural world? Studies on webs of species interactions suggest so, but a major question remains unanswered: how specialized are different ecological networks? By considering how strongly species interact with each other, information(More)