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—An approximate time-harmonic three-dimensional electromagnetic boundary-integral method, the small-slope integral equation, is combined with a series expansion of the Creamer surface representation at second order with respect to the height, denoted by Creamer (2). The resulting model provides at low numerical cost simulations of the nonlinear ocean… (More)

This work is the first in a series of two papers on the use of combined improved hydrodynamic and electromagnetic analytical models for the simulation of the ocean Doppler spectrum at microwave frequencies. Under a linear assumption for the sea surface we derive statistical expression for the main Doppler characteristics according to asymptotic scattering… (More)

—This paper extends the results of a previous work by combining hydrodynamic and electromagnetic analytical models for the simulation of the ocean Doppler spectrum at microwave frequencies. We consider weakly nonlinear sea surfaces after the choppy wave model and incorporate them in classical and unified scattering models, namely, the Kirchhoff and weighted… (More)

—We present a boundary integral method for the solution of the rigorous problem of microwave scattering from finite conductivity sea surfaces under grazing illumination. Following the locally perturbated plane approach, the roughness is flattened at the edges of a finite patch, allowing us to use a plane wave as incident field. Both theoretical formulation… (More)

—We present a numerical investigation of horizontally-polarized microwave scattering from one-dimensional sea surfaces at extreme grazing angles. Rigorous electromagnetic calculations are performed with a specific integral formalism dedicated to grazing angles. Sample sea surfaces are simulated using a classical Pierson-Moskowitz elevation spectrum together… (More)

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