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Naltrexone and acamprosate reduce relapse in alcohol dependence. They have not yet been compared in a published trial. The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of these compounds in conditions similar to those in routine clinical practice. Random allocation to a year of treatment with naltrexone (50 mg/day) or acamprosate (1665-1998 mg/day) was(More)
BACKGROUND Presence of A1 allele of the DRD2 gene has been associated with a predisposition for alcoholism although there are limited data about its phenotypic expression in alcoholism. OBJECTIVES To determine the importance of the A1 allele in clinical variables of alcohol dependence. METHODOLOGY A sample of 103 alcohol-dependent males was studied. All(More)
OBJECTIVE Anticonvulsant drugs have been used in the treatment of alcohol dependence. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate tolerance and safety of zonisamide in a sample of patients presenting alcohol dependence. METHODS Open-label zonisamide was examined in 22 outpatients with Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth(More)
Topiramate (TP), an anticonvulsant drug, has been widely used in the treatment of disorders characterized by impulsivity symptoms, so it goes to reason that it might be useful in addictive disorders. Recently, TP has been used to treat alcohol dependence, but it is still not known whether the effects of TP on alcohol consumption are related with its action(More)
INTRODUCTION Anticonvulsant drugs have been used in the treatment of alcohol detoxification. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of zonisamide in a sample of patients presenting alcohol withdrawal syndrome. METHOD In this 3-week, randomized, flexible-dose trial, 40 inpatients with alcohol dependence disorder received(More)
Dopaminergic dysfunction in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) is involved in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. In the PFC, dopamine signalling largely depends on the D1 receptors, which are coded by the DRD1 gene, and on the regulation of dopamine levels by the enzyme catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT). Here, we investigate the role of DRD1 and its(More)
BACKGROUND Structural and Electroencephalography (EEG) abnormalities in right temporoparietal cortex have been associated with family history of depression (FH). Here we investigate if functional abnormalities in this area, indexed by attenuated responses to emotionally arousing stimuli, are also family-history-dependent. METHODS Neuromagnetic activity(More)
BACKGROUND Although many studies have established a close relation between impulsivity and alcohol use disorders, little is known about the role of behavioral impulsivity in the development of these disorders. OBJECTIVES To determine the role of 2 laboratory paradigms of impulsivity in the development of alcohol use disorders. METHODS Follow-up study(More)
CONTEXT Neuropsychological models of depression highlight temporoparietal hypofunction associated with low emotional arousal in major depressive disorder (MDD). These models were derived from indirect measures such as neuropsychological tests and electroencephalography alpha band power. OBJECTIVE To determine if high-arousing stimuli directly modulated(More)
Since Classical Antiquity numerous authors have linked the origin of some mental disorders to physical and functional changes in the pineal gland because of its attributed role in humans as the connection between the material and the spiritual world. The pineal organ was seen as a valve-like structure that regulated the flow of animal spirits through the(More)