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The envelope glycoprotein trimer (Env) on the surface of HIV-1 recognizes CD4(+) T cells and mediates viral entry. During this process, Env undergoes substantial conformational rearrangements, making it difficult to study in its native state. Soluble stabilized trimers have provided valuable insights into the Env structure, but they lack the hydrophobic(More)
The trimeric envelope (Env) spike is the focus of vaccine design efforts aimed at generating broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) to protect against HIV-1 infection. Three recent developments have facilitated a thorough investigation of the antigenic structure of the Env trimer: 1) the isolation of many bNAbs against multiple different epitopes; 2) the(More)
Induction of broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs) is a primary goal of HIV vaccine development. VRC01-class bnAbs are important vaccine leads because their precursor B cells targeted by an engineered priming immunogen are relatively common among humans. This priming immunogen has demonstrated the ability to initiate a bnAb response in animal models, but(More)
UNLABELLED Recombinant trimeric mimics of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) envelope glycoprotein (Env) spike should expose as many epitopes as possible for broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) but few, if any, for nonneutralizing antibodies (non-NAbs). Soluble, cleaved SOSIP.664 gp140 trimers based on the subtype A strain BG505 approach(More)
Antibodies with ontogenies from VH1-2 or VH1-46-germline genes dominate the broadly neutralizing response against the CD4-binding site (CD4bs) on HIV-1. Here, we define with longitudinal sampling from time-of-infection the development of a VH1-46-derived antibody lineage that matured to neutralize 90% of HIV-1 isolates. Structures of lineage antibodies(More)
A key challenge in the quest toward an HIV-1 vaccine is design of immunogens that can generate a broadly neutralizing antibody (bnAb) response against the enormous sequence diversity of the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein (Env). We previously demonstrated that a recombinant, soluble, fully cleaved SOSIP.664 trimer based on the clade A BG505 sequence is a(More)
A highly glycosylated, trimeric envelope glycoprotein (Env) mediates HIV-1 cell entry. The high density and heterogeneity of the glycans shield Env from recognition by the immune system, but paradoxically, many potent broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) recognize epitopes involving this glycan shield. To better understand Env glycosylation and its role(More)
The envelope glycoprotein trimer mediates HIV-1 entry into cells. The trimer is flexible, fluctuating between closed and more open conformations and sometimes sampling the fully open, CD4-bound form. We hypothesized that conformational flexibility and transient exposure of non-neutralizing, immunodominant epitopes could hinder the induction of broadly(More)
UNLABELLED We have investigated factors that influence the production of native-like soluble, recombinant trimers based on the env genes of two isolates of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), specifically 92UG037.8 (clade A) and CZA97.012 (clade C). When the recombinant trimers based on the env genes of isolates 92UG037.8 and CZA97.012 were made(More)
A major advance in the search for an HIV vaccine has been the development of a near-native Envelope trimer (BG505 SOSIP.664) that can induce robust autologous Tier 2 neutralization. Here, potently neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (nAbs) from rabbits immunized with BG505 SOSIP.664 are shown to recognize an immunodominant region of gp120 centered on residue(More)