Gabriel Núñez

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The gene encoding the Nod2 protein is frequently mutated in Crohn's disease (CD) patients, although the physiological function of Nod2 in the intestine remains elusive. Here we show that protective immunity mediated by Nod2 recognition of bacterial muramyl dipeptide is abolished in Nod2-deficient mice. These animals are susceptible to bacterial infection(More)
Over the past several decades, much has been revealed about the nature of the host innate immune response to microorganisms, with the identification of pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) and pathogen-associated molecular patterns, which are the conserved microbial motifs sensed by these receptors. It is now apparent that these same PRRs can also be(More)
Autophagy is emerging as a crucial defense mechanism against bacteria, but the host intracellular sensors responsible for inducing autophagy in response to bacterial infection remain unknown. Here we demonstrated that the intracellular sensors Nod1 and Nod2 are critical for the autophagic response to invasive bacteria. By a mechanism independent of the(More)
The inflammatory nature of atherosclerosis is well established but the agent(s) that incite inflammation in the artery wall remain largely unknown. Germ-free animals are susceptible to atherosclerosis, suggesting that endogenous substances initiate the inflammation. Mature atherosclerotic lesions contain macroscopic deposits of cholesterol crystals in the(More)
The inflammasome is a multiprotein complex that mediates the activation of caspase-1, which promotes secretion of the proinflammatory cytokines interleukin 1beta (IL-1beta) and IL-18, as well as 'pyroptosis', a form of cell death induced by bacterial pathogens. Members of the Nod-like receptor family, including NLRP1, NLRP3 and NLRC4, and the adaptor ASC(More)
Interleukin 1β (IL-1β) is an important inflammatory mediator of type 2 diabetes. Here we show that oligomers of islet amyloid polypeptide (IAPP), a protein that forms amyloid deposits in the pancreas during type 2 diabetes, triggered the NLRP3 inflammasome and generated mature IL-1β. One therapy for type 2 diabetes, glyburide, suppressed IAPP-mediated IL-1β(More)
Nods are cytosolic proteins that contain a nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain (NOD). These proteins include key regulators of apoptosis and pathogen resistance in mammals and plants. A large number of Nods contain leucine-rich repeats (LRRs), hence referred to as NOD-LRR proteins. Genetic variation in several NOD-LRR proteins, including human Nod2,(More)
Gram-negative bacteria that replicate in the cytosol of mammalian macrophages can activate a signaling pathway leading to caspase-1 cleavage and secretion of interleukin 1beta, a powerful host response factor. Ipaf, a cytosolic pattern-recognition receptor in the family of nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-leucine-rich repeat proteins, is critical(More)
NOD (nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain) proteins are members of a family that includes the apoptosis regulator APAF1 (apoptotic protease activating factor 1), mammalian NOD-LRR (leucine-rich repeat) proteins and plant disease-resistance gene products. Several NOD proteins have been implicated in the induction of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB)(More)
Missense mutations in the CIAS1 gene cause three autoinflammatory disorders: familial cold autoinflammatory syndrome, Muckle-Wells syndrome and neonatal-onset multiple-system inflammatory disease. Cryopyrin (also called Nalp3), the product of CIAS1, is a member of the NOD-LRR protein family that has been linked to the activation of intracellular host(More)