Gabriel Ghiaur

Learn More
Despite antiretroviral therapy (ART), human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 persists in a stable latent reservoir, primarily in resting memory CD4(+) T cells. This reservoir presents a major barrier to the cure of HIV-1 infection. To purge the reservoir, pharmacological reactivation of latent HIV-1 has been proposed and tested both in vitro and in vivo. A(More)
Identifying cellular reservoirs of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) in patients on antiretroviral therapy (ART) is critical to finding a cure for HIV-1. In addition to resting CD4(+) T cells, CD34(+) hematopoietic progenitor cells have been proposed as another reservoir. We obtained bone marrow aspirates from 11 patients on ART who had(More)
C/EBPα is required for the formation of granulocyte-monocyte progenitors; however, its role in subsequent myeloid lineage specification remains uncertain. Transduction of murine marrow with either of two Cebpa shRNAs markedly increases monocyte and reduces granulocyte colonies in methylcellulose or the monocyte to neutrophil ratio in liquid culture. Similar(More)
The high expression of aldehyde dehydrogenase 1, also known as retinaldehyde dehydrogenase, by hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) suggests an important role for retinoic acid (RA) signaling in determining the fate of these cells. We found that primitive human bone marrow-derived CD34(+)CD38(-) cells not only highly express aldehyde dehydrogenase 1, but also(More)
Alterations in genes encoding epigenetic regulators are common in myeloid malignancies, and several recent studies have demonstrated that these mutations are present at high frequencies within peripheral blood cells in approximately 10% of individuals over 60 years of age. Although the presence of these mutations carries an increased risk of subsequent(More)
Evidence gathered over the past two decades confirms earlier reports that suggested that hematologic malignancies exhibit a hierarchical differentiation structure similar to normal hematopoiesis. There is growing evidence that some solid tumors may also exhibit a differentiation program similar to the normal tissue of origin. Many excellent reviews on the(More)
FMS-like tyrosine kinase 3 (FLT3)-mutant acute myeloid leukemia (AML) portends a poor prognosis, and ineffective targeting of the leukemic stem cell (LSC) population remains one of several obstacles in treating this disease. All-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) has been used in several clinical trials for the treatment of nonpromyelocytic AML with limited(More)
Survival of patients with acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) depends on our ability to prevent relapse in patients that achieved complete remission after intensive chemotherapy. While studies focusing on the malignant clone brought many advances in understanding AML biology and chemoresistance, little improvement has been made in eliminating the last bastion(More)
Differentiation therapy with all-trans retinoic acid (atRA) has markedly improved outcome in acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) but has had little clinical impact in other AML sub-types. Cell intrinsic mechanisms of resistance have been previously reported, yet the majority of AML blasts are sensitive to atRA in vitro. Even in APL, single agent atRA induces(More)
Interactions between multiple myeloma (MM) cells and the BM microenvironment play a critical role in bortezomib (BTZ) resistance. However, the mechanisms involved in these interactions are not completely understood. We previously showed that expression of CYP26 in BM stromal cells maintains a retinoic acid-low (RA-low) microenvironment that prevents the(More)