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Understanding the factors responsible for variations in mutation patterns and selection efficacy along chromosomes is a prerequisite for deciphering genome sequences. Population genetics models predict a positive correlation between the efficacy of selection at a given locus and the local rate of recombination because of Hill-Robertson effects. Codon usage(More)
UNLABELLED Comparing genetic and physical maps (the so-called Marey map approach) is still the most widely used approach to estimate genome-wide recombination rates. Remarkably, there is no available bioinformatics tool specifically devoted to Marey map approach. Here, we developed such a tool called MareyMap based on GNU R and Tcl/Tk. MareyMap offers a(More)
We analyzed the distribution of transposable elements (TEs: transposons, LTR retrotransposons, and non-LTR retrotransposons) in the chromosomes of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. The density of transposons (DNA-based elements) along the chromosomes was found to be positively correlated with recombination rate, but this relationship was not observed for(More)
In many unicellular organisms, invertebrates, and plants, synonymous codon usage biases result from a coadaptation between codon usage and tRNAs abundance to optimize the efficiency of protein synthesis. However, it remains unclear whether natural selection acts at the level of the speed or the accuracy of mRNAs translation. Here we show that codon usage(More)
According to population genetics models, genomic regions with lower crossing-over rates are expected to experience less effective selection because of Hill-Robertson interference (HRi). The effect of genetic linkage is thought to be particularly important for a selection of weak intensity such as selection affecting codon usage. Consistent with this model,(More)
How and why female somatic X-chromosome inactivation (XCI) evolved in mammals remains poorly understood. It has been proposed that XCI is a dosage-compensation mechanism that evolved to equalize expression levels of X-linked genes in females (2X) and males (1X), with a prior twofold increase in expression of X-linked genes in both sexes ("Ohno's(More)
Silene latifolia is a dioecious plant with heteromorphic sex chromosomes that have originated only ∼10 million years ago and is a promising model organism to study sex chromosome evolution in plants. Previous work suggests that S. latifolia XY chromosomes have gradually stopped recombining and the Y chromosome is undergoing degeneration as in animal sex(More)
The human Y is a genetically degenerate chromosome, which has lost about 97% of the genes originally present. Most of the remaining human Y genes are in large duplicated segments (ampliconic regions) undergoing intense Y-Y gene conversion. It has been suggested that Y-Y gene conversion may help these genes getting rid of deleterious mutations that would(More)
Genome reduction has been considered the hallmark of endosymbiotic bacteria, such as endocellular mutualists or obligatory pathogens until it was found exactly the same in several free-living bacteria. In endosymbiotic bacteria genome reduction is mainly attributed to degenerative processes due to small population size. These cannot affect the free-living(More)
GC-biased gene conversion (gBGC) is a process that tends to increase the GC content of recombining DNA over evolutionary time and is thought to explain the evolution of GC content in mammals and yeasts. Evidence for gBGC outside these two groups is growing but is still limited. Here, we analyzed 36 completely sequenced genomes representing four of the five(More)