Gabriel A. B. Marais

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According to population genetics models, genomic regions with lower crossing-over rates are expected to experience less effective selection because of Hill-Robertson interference (HRi). The effect of genetic linkage is thought to be particularly important for a selection of weak intensity such as selection affecting codon usage. Consistent with this model,(More)
How and why female somatic X-chromosome inactivation (XCI) evolved in mammals remains poorly understood. It has been proposed that XCI is a dosage-compensation mechanism that evolved to equalize expression levels of X-linked genes in females (2X) and males (1X), with a prior twofold increase in expression of X-linked genes in both sexes ("Ohno's(More)
UNLABELLED Comparing genetic and physical maps (the so-called Marey map approach) is still the most widely used approach to estimate genome-wide recombination rates. Remarkably, there is no available bioinformatics tool specifically devoted to Marey map approach. Here, we developed such a tool called MareyMap based on GNU R and Tcl/Tk. MareyMap offers a(More)
Silene latifolia is a dioecious plant with heteromorphic sex chromosomes that have originated only ∼10 million years ago and is a promising model organism to study sex chromosome evolution in plants. Previous work suggests that S. latifolia XY chromosomes have gradually stopped recombining and the Y chromosome is undergoing degeneration as in animal sex(More)
The human Y is a genetically degenerate chromosome, which has lost about 97% of the genes originally present. Most of the remaining human Y genes are in large duplicated segments (ampliconic regions) undergoing intense Y-Y gene conversion. It has been suggested that Y-Y gene conversion may help these genes getting rid of deleterious mutations that would(More)
The human sex chromosomes have stopped recombining gradually, which has left five evolutionary strata on the X chromosome. Y inversions are thought to have suppressed X-Y recombination but clear evidence is missing. Here, we looked for such evidence by focusing on a region--the X-added region (XAR)--that includes the pseudoautosomal region and the most(More)
GC-biased gene conversion (gBGC) is a process that tends to increase the GC content of recombining DNA over evolutionary time and is thought to explain the evolution of GC content in mammals and yeasts. Evidence for gBGC outside these two groups is growing but is still limited. Here, we analyzed 36 completely sequenced genomes representing four of the five(More)
Ohno’s hypothesis states that dosage compensation in mammals evolved in two steps: a twofold hyperactivation of the X chromosome in both sexes to compensate for gene losses on the Y chromosome, and silencing of one X (X-chromosome inactivation, XCI) in females to restore optimal dosage. Recent tests of this hypothesis have returned contradictory results. In(More)
The evolution of sex chromosomes is often accompanied by gene or chromosome rearrangements. Recently, the gene AP3 was characterized in the dioecious plant species Silene latifolia. It was suggested that this gene had been transferred from an autosome to the Y chromosome. In the present study we provide evidence for the existence of an X linked copy of the(More)
This paper represents the first molecular cytogenetic characterization of the strictly dioecious pistachio tree (Pistacia vera L.). The karyotype was characterized by fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) with probes for 5S and 45S rDNAs, and the pistachio specific satellite DNAs PIVE-40, and PIVE-180, together with DAPI-staining. PIVE-180 has a(More)