Gabriel A. B. Marais

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Classical genetic studies show that gene conversion can favour some alleles over others. Molecular experiments suggest that gene conversion could favour GC over AT basepairs, leading to the concept of biased gene conversion towards GC (BGC(GC)). The expected consequence of such a process is the GC-enrichment of DNA sequences under gene conversion. Recent(More)
To help understand the evolution of suppressed recombination between sex chromosomes, and its consequences for evolution of the sequences of Y-linked genes, we have studied four X-Y gene pairs, including one gene not previously characterized, in plants in a group of closely related dioecious species of Silene which have an X-Y sex-determining system (S.(More)
Mammalian X chromosomes evolved under various mechanisms including sexual antagonism, the faster-X process, and meiotic sex chromosome inactivation (MSCI). These forces may contribute to nonrandom chromosomal distribution of sex-biased genes. In order to understand the evolution of gene content on the X chromosome and autosome under these forces, we dated(More)
We analyzed the distribution of 54 families of transposable elements (TEs; transposons, LTR retrotransposons, and non-LTR retrotransposons) in the chromosomes of Drosophila melanogaster, using data from the sequenced genome. The density of LTR and non-LTR retrotransposons (RNA-based elements) was high in regions with low recombination rates, but there was(More)
We have found a negative correlation between evolutionary rate at the protein level (as measured by d(N)) and intron size in Drosophila. Although such a relation is expected if introns reduce Hill-Robertson interference within genes, it seems more likely to be explained by the higher abundance of cis-regulatory elements in introns (especially first introns)(More)
Recombination is thought to have various evolutionary effects on genome evolution. In this study, we investigated the relationship between the base composition and recombination rate in the Drosophila melanogaster genome. Because of a current debate about the accuracy of the estimates of recombination rate in Drosophila, we used eight different measures of(More)
Recent work has shown that Drosophila melanogaster genes with fast-evolving nonsynonymous sites have lower codon usage bias. This pattern has been attributed to interference between positive selection at nonsynonymous sites and weak selection on codon usage. Here we have looked for this correlation in a much larger and less biased dataset, comprising 630(More)
Stilbenes are a small family of phenylpropanoids produced in a number of unrelated plant species, including grapevine (Vitis vinifera). In addition to their participation in defense mechanisms in plants, stilbenes, such as resveratrol, display important pharmacological properties and are postulated to be involved in the health benefits associated with a(More)
In many unicellular organisms, invertebrates, and plants, synonymous codon usage biases result from a coadaptation between codon usage and tRNAs abundance to optimize the efficiency of protein synthesis. However, it remains unclear whether natural selection acts at the level of the speed or the accuracy of mRNAs translation. Here we show that codon usage(More)
The human Y--probably because of its nonrecombining nature--has lost 97% of its genes since X and Y chromosomes started to diverge [1, 2]. There are clear signs of degeneration in the Drosophila miranda neoY chromosome (an autosome fused to the Y chromosome), with neoY genes showing faster protein evolution [3-6], accumulation of unpreferred codons [6],(More)