Gaël Guilhem

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In human obesity, white adipose tissue (WAT) is enriched in macrophages. How macrophage infiltration in WAT contributes to the complications of obesity is unknown. This study tested the hypothesis that recruitment of macrophages in omental WAT is associated with hepatic damage in obese patients. Paired biopsies of subcutaneous and omental WAT and a liver(More)
AIM Changes in muscle stiffness after exercise-induced muscle damage have been classically inferred from passive torque-angle curves. Elastographic techniques can be used to estimate the shear modulus of a localized muscular area. This study aimed to quantify the changes in shear elastic modulus in different regions of the elbow flexors after eccentric(More)
PURPOSE The purpose of this study was to compare neuromuscular adaptations induced by work-matched isoload (IL) versus isokinetic (IK) eccentric resistance training. METHODS A total of 31 healthy subjects completed a 9-wk IL (n = 11) or IK (n = 10) training program for the knee extensors or did not train (control group; n = 10). The IL and IK programs(More)
The present study aimed to compare muscle architecture and electromyographic activity during isotonic (IT) and isokinetic (IK) knee extensors eccentric contractions. Seventeen subjects were assigned in test and reproducibility groups. During test session, subjects performed two IT and two IK sets of eccentric contractions of knee extensor muscles. Torque,(More)
BACKGROUND Localized cooling has been proposed as an effective strategy to limit the deleterious effects of exercise-induced muscle damage on neuromuscular function. However, the literature reports conflicting results. PURPOSE This randomized controlled trial aimed to determine the effects of a new treatment, localized air-pulsed cryotherapy (-30°C), on(More)
AIM Defining the origins of muscle injury has important rehabilitation and exercise applications. However, current knowledge of muscle damage mechanics in human remains unclear in vivo. This study aimed to determine the relationships between muscle-tendon unit mechanics during maximal eccentric contractions and the extent of subsequent functional(More)
OBJECTIVE To present the properties of an eccentric contraction and compare neuromuscular and muscle-tendon system adaptations induced by isotonic and isokinetic eccentric trainings. SYNTHESIS An eccentric muscle contraction is characterized by the production of muscle force associated to a lengthening of the muscle-tendon system. This muscle solicitation(More)
The present study aimed to standardize isotonic (IT) and isokinetic (IK) eccentric exercises by equalizing the amount of work and the angular velocity at two intensity levels, to be able to compare specific effects of these exercise modes on the neuromuscular system. Fourteen subjects participated in three test sessions consisting of two IT and two IK sets(More)
This study tested the relationship between the magnitude of muscle damage and both central and peripheral modulations during and after eccentric contractions of plantar flexors. Eleven participants performed 10 sets of 30 maximal eccentric contractions of the plantar flexors at 45°·s(-1). Maximal voluntary torque, evoked torque (peripheral component) and(More)
This study was designed to develop a new device allowing mechanical analysis of eccentric exercise against a constant load, with a view in mind to compare isoload (IL) and isokinetic (IK) eccentric exercises. A plate-loaded resistance training device was integrated to an IK dynamometer, to perform the acquisition of mechanical parameters (i.e., external(More)