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BACKGROUND Thyroid carcinoma is a common endocrine tumor in the dog. Local invasive growth frequently precludes surgical excision and, in up to 38% of dogs, the tumor has already metastasized by the time of diagnosis. Therefore, it is important to investigate new treatment modalities that may be useful for the large number of dogs with inoperable tumors or(More)
BACKGROUND Information on the genetic events leading to thyroid cancer in dogs is lacking. HYPOTHESIS/OBJECTIVES Upregulation of the PI3K/Akt pathway has an important role in the tumorigenesis of thyroid carcinoma in dogs. ANIMALS Fifty-nine dogs with thyroid carcinoma and 10 healthy controls. METHODS Quantitative RT-PCR was performed for VEGFR-1,(More)
BACKGROUND Prognostic markers for dogs with thyroid tumors are limited. HYPOTHESIS/OBJECTIVES To identify clinical, pathologic, and immunohistochemical prognostic factors for dogs with thyroid tumors. ANIMALS Seventy dogs with thyroid neoplasia. METHODS Retrospective study. Dogs with thyroid neoplasia were included when follow-up information and(More)
The safety of synthetic steroid hormones to be used for contraception in the human female is tested in rats, beagle dogs, and (once marketing starts) in monkeys. Because early studies did not show a mammary tumor stimulating effect in the human, in contrast to findings in the dog, many objections have been raised to the use of the dog for these toxicity(More)
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