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Periconceptional folic acid supplementation reduces the occurrence of several human congenital malformations, including craniofacial, heart and neural tube defects. Although the underlying mechanism is unknown, there may be a maternal-to-fetal folate-transport defect or an inherent fetal biochemical disorder that is neutralized by supplementation. Previous(More)
The character of reactive metabolites formed from carbamazepine (CBZ) was sought in incubations of [14C]CBZ in hepatic microsomes prepared from adult female mice of a strain (SWV/Fnn) susceptible to CBZ-induced teratogenicity. The formation of radio-labeled protein adducts was used as an index of reactive metabolite exposure. A dependence on cytochrome P450(More)
The teratogenic effects of valproic acid and its 4-propyl-4-pentenoic acid (4-en) metabolite were investigated in three inbred mouse strains that were known to possess differing sensitivity to heat-induced neural tube defects. In the heat-resistant DBA/2J strain, administration of either valproic acid or the metabolite during the critical period of neural(More)
PURPOSE We wished to determine whether chronic phenytoin (PHT) exposure could impair neural development and if any morphological alterations could be linked to changes in gene expression. METHODS Pregnant SWV mice were chronically administered PHT 40 mg/kg/day from gestational day (GD) 0:12 (day:h) until they were killed at various timepoints throughout(More)
The potential of arsenic to cause neural tube defects (NTD) in the human population remains a topic of controversy. While clearly toxic, the lack of well-defined human epidemiologic studies on this subject has made it difficult to fully understand the effects arsenic may have on the developing human neural tube. In the absence of good clinical data, we have(More)
Neural tube defects (NTDs) are among the most common of all human congenital defects, with multifactorial etiologies comprising both environmental and genetic components. Several murine model systems have been developed in an effort to elucidate genetic factors regulating expression of NTDs. Strain-dependent differences in susceptibility to teratogenic(More)
The teratogenic potential of valproic acid has been well established both in experimental models and in human clinical studies. As with all human teratogens, there are genetically determined differences in individual susceptibility to the induction of congenital defects. Using a mouse model of valproate-induced neural tube defects, a study was undertaken to(More)
Exposing embryos to elevated temperatures both in vivo and in vitro has been shown to result in the production of offspring with severe congenital abnormalities. While a direct effect of heat cannot be excluded, recent interest has been focused on the possible role that the induction of the heat shock response may have in the etiology of the observed(More)
The disposition of carbamazepine (CBZ) was investigated in the SWV mouse. A 14C-CBZ dose was administered to CBZ pretreated mice, and the distribution of radiolabeled material was determined. Twenty-four hours after the 14C-CBZ dose, 92.5% of the dose was accounted for in urine (56%), in the visera and carcass (22%), in feces (11%), and expired as 14CO2(More)
The amino acid homocysteine increases in the serum when there is insufficient folic acid or vitamin B(12), or with certain mutations in enzymes important in methionine metabolism. Elevated homocysteine is related to increased risk for cardiovascular and other diseases in adults and elevated maternal homocysteine increases the risk for certain congenital(More)