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Prevention of HIV-1 transmission at mucosal surfaces will likely require durable pre-existing mucosal anti-HIV-1 antibodies (Abs). Defining the ontogeny, specificities and potentially protective nature of the initial mucosal virus-specific B-cell response will be critical for understanding how to induce protective Ab responses by vaccination. Genital fluids(More)
We describe an enhancer site in the third intron of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha). A reporter construct containing the 5'-flanking region of the mouse TNF-alpha gene displayed weak activity when transfected into RAW264.7 macrophage-like cells. The addition of the third intron of TNF-alpha to this construct resulted in an enhancement of CAT(More)
The impact of topical antiretrovirals for pre-exposure prophylaxis on humoral responses following HIV infection is unknown. Using a binding antibody multiplex assay, we investigated HIV-specific IgG and IgA responses to envelope glycoproteins, p24 Gag and p66, in the genital tract (GT) and plasma following HIV acquisition in women assigned to tenofovir gel(More)