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Toward a metabolic theory of ecology
- James H. Brown, J. Gillooly, A. P. Allen, V. Savage, G. West
- Environmental Science, Biology
- 1 July 2004
This work has developed a quantitative theory for how metabolic rate varies with body size and temperature, and predicts how metabolic theory predicts how this rate controls ecological processes at all levels of organization from individuals to the biosphere.
A General Model for the Origin of Allometric Scaling Laws in Biology
The model provides a complete analysis of scaling relations for mammalian circulatory systems that are in agreement with data and predicts structural and functional properties of vertebrate cardiovascular and respiratory systems, plant vascular systems, insect tracheal tubes, and other distribution networks.
Effects of Size and Temperature on Metabolic Rate
A general model is derived, based on principles of biochemical kinetics and allometry, that characterizes the effects of temperature and body mass on metabolic rate of microbes, ectotherms, endotherms (including those in hibernation), and plants in temperatures ranging from 0° to 40°C.
A general model for the structure and allometry of plant vascular systems
Vascular plants vary in size by about twelve orders of magnitude, and a single individual sequoia spans nearly this entire range as it grows from a seedling to a mature tree. Size influences nearly…
Growth, innovation, scaling, and the pace of life in cities
- L. Bettencourt, J. Lobo, D. Helbing, C. Kühnert, G. West
- EconomicsProceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
- 24 April 2007
Empirical evidence is presented indicating that the processes relating urbanization to economic development and knowledge creation are very general, being shared by all cities belonging to the same urban system and sustained across different nations and times.
A general model for ontogenetic growth
A general quantitative model based on fundamental principles for the allocation of metabolic energy between maintenance of existing tissue and the production of new biomass is derived to predict the parameters governing growth curves from basic cellular properties and derive a single parameterless universal curve that describes the growth of many diverse species.
The fourth dimension of life: fractal geometry and allometric scaling of organisms.
Fractal-like networks effectively endow life with an additional fourth spatial dimension, and design principles are independent of detailed dynamics and explicit models and should apply to virtually all organisms.
The predominance of quarter-power scaling in biology
It is shown that interspecific variation in BMR, as well as field metabolic rates of mammals, and basal or standard metabolic rates for many other organisms, including vertebrates, invertebrates, protists and plants, all scale with exponents whose confidence intervals include 3 / 4 and exclude 2 / 3.
Allometric scaling of plant energetics and population density
Scaling relationships that describe variation in population density with body size in ecological communities, such as the thinning law in plant ecology, can be explained in terms of how individuals…
Effects of Body Size and Temperature on Population Growth
- V. Savage, J. Gillooly, James H. Brown, G. West, E. Charnov
- Environmental ScienceThe American Naturalist
- 1 March 2004
A theory shows how the intrinsic rate of exponential population growth depends on individual metabolic rate and resource supply rate, and makes explicit the relationship between rates of resource supply in the environment and rates of production of new biomass and individuals.