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The Molecular Basis of Visual Excitation
- G. Wald
- 1 August 1968
The article that follows consists of most of the lecture delivered by Professor Wald last December when he received the Nobel Prize for Medicine in Stockholm.
Tautomeric Forms of Metarhodopsin
- R. Matthews, R. Hubbard, P. K. Brown, G. Wald
- Biology, ChemistryThe Journal of general physiology
- 1 November 1963
The present experiments show that metarhodopsin exists in two tautomeric forms, metar Rhodopsins I and II, with λmax 478 and 380 mµ, which has been confused earlier with the final mixture of all-trans retinal and opsin, which it resembles in spectrum.
HUMAN VISION AND THE SPECTRUM.
- G. Wald
- Computer Science, MedicineScience
- 29 June 1945
THE MOLAR EXTINCTION OF RHODOPSIN
It is concluded that the primary photochemical conversion of rhodopsin to lumi-rhodopin has a quantum efficiency of 1; though the over-all bleaching of r Rhodopsin in solution to retinene and opsin may have a Quantum efficiency as low as one-half.
The change in refractive power of the human eye in dim and bright light.
It is concluded that setting optical instruments about 0.4 diopter more negatively in dim than in bright light is justified on the basis of the chromatic aberration of the eye.
Rhodopsin and Porphyropsin Fields In the Adult Bullfrog Retina
The present observations show that the retina of the adult frog may contain as much as 30–40% porphyropsin, all of it segregated in the dorsal zone, which has some ecological importance in increasing the retinal sensitivity to the dimmer and, on occasion, redder light received from below.
Blue-blindness in the normal fovea.
- G. Wald
- MedicineJournal of the Optical Society of America
- 1 November 1967
It is suggested that the blue-blindness of the fixation area is a final step in the general withdrawal of image vision from the short wavelengths of the spectrum, for which the chromatic aberration of the eye is greatest.
Visual Pigments in Single Rods and Cones of the Human Retina
Difference spectra of the visual pigments have been measured in single rods and cones of a parafoveal region of the human retina, presumably samples of the three types of cone responsible for human color vision.
THE DARK ADAPTATION OF RETINAL FIELDS OF DIFFERENT SIZE AND LOCATION
The behavior in dark adaptation of centrally located fields of different size is determined in the main not by area as area, but by the fact that the retina gradually changes in periphery from center to periphery, and therefore the larger the field the farther it reaches into peripheral regions of permanently greater sensibility.